1. The Fuhrer - Bruno calls him the Fury. The word means a leader, especially one who exhibits qualities of a tyrant. This is the name they gave Hitler. When he is described on page 121, he is said to be short (Hitler was about 5'8" but his legs were very short),dark hair, with a tiny mustache. This also describes Hitler
2. Eva Braun -- This was Hitler's longtime companion. He married her just before the fall of the Third Reich, and they both committed suicide. Bruno describes her as "the most beautiful woman he had ever seen in his life" (pg 121)
3. Auschwitz -- Bruno calls it "Out With" This was an actual concentration camp located in Poland. There were eventually three Aushwitz camps, and the one Bruno's father ran would be Auschwitz one, since it held the Polish prisoners, the first ones at Auschwitz4. Polish prisoners -- were the first to occupy Auschwitz in the early 1940's. There were about 150,000 Poles held in Auschwitz, but when they needed more room for their Soviet and Jewish prisoners, they killed all the Polish people.
5. Armbands. On page 126, Schmuel tells Bruno that they had to wear armbands with the Jewish star on them. The Jewish people were made to wear them so that they could be identified.
6. They were shipped by trains to Auschwitz. The trains had no toilets and no food. The trains were crowded. The doors were locked and there was no air.
7. The men and the women were separated. Bruno says,
"There were small boys and big boys, fathers and grandfathers. Perhaps a few uncles too." (pg 30)
Gretel wonders why there aren't any girls or mothers or grandmothers. Bruno suggest that they live in a different part. Schmuel confirms this when he says,
"And Mama was taken away from us and Papa and Josef and I were put into the huts over there..." ( pg 130)
8. Starvation: It has been confirmed that those who did not die in the gas chambers, died of disease or starvation. Schmuel is always asking Bruno for food, and Bruno notices throughout the whole book how skinny he is and how hollow his eyes have become.
9. Striped clothing and shaved heads - the prisoners were made to wear striped clothing. Prisoners were made to shave their heads.
10. Gas chambers ---- Masses of people were marched or herded into buildings and gassed.