1. Nucleotide - building blocks of DNA.
2. Codon - a set of three nucleotides that codes for a particular amino acid via a tRNA's anticodon during protein synthesis
3. Polypeptide - a string of amino acids (poly = many) that is created during protein synthesis. Polypeptides are shorter than the DNA segment that codes for them. The DNA segment contains additional start and stop codons that are not translated into the corresponding polypeptide.
3 Gene - a segment of DNA that provides the genetic code for a particular trait or characteristic via the assembly of a protein.
4. DNA - DNA stands for deoxyribose nucleic acid. It is the biomolecule that contains genetic information. DNA is shaped as a double helix and is made of nucleotides. The outside of a DNA consists of alternating sugar (deoxyribose) and phosphate atoms whereas the interior "rungs" of the DNA "ladder" and consist of the either adenine, thymine, cytosine, or guanine.
5. Chromosome- Chromosomes are made from DNA strands wrapped around proteins. They multiply during cellular division (mitosis or meiosis).