PREDECESSORS TO THE SCIENTIFIC MOVEMENT ØJAMES WATT JR. AND MATHEW ROBINSON BOULTON ØROBERT OWEN ØCHARLES BABBAGE ØHENRY VARNUM POOR JAMES WATT & M.R.BOULTON:- •They were the sons of the pioneers who invented the steam engine. •They ran the Soho Foundry •Pioneers of Management Systems •Watt was in charge of administration and organisation •Boulton looked after and developed accounting , costing and HR systems ROBERT OWEN •Known as “ Father of Personnel Management.” •Carried out experiments at his own textile mills in Scotland. •He was not a philanthropist. •His philosophy was that “ good personnel management pays dividends to the employer and is an essential part of every manager’s job.” CHARLES BABBAGE •Known as the “Father of Computers” •Invented the Analytical Machine •Was a professor of mathematics at Cambridge and was interested in the economies of division of labour •Also keen on the human element in management. HENRY VARNUM POOR •Editor of the American railroad journal •Saw the railroad system being mismanaged and plundered. •Suggested effective management with a sound communication system •Was generally overlooked by the management thinkers of that time FREDERICK WINSLOW TAYLOR •Known as “ the Father of Scientific Management.” •He worked his way up from worker to chief engineer of Midvale Steel works in Philadelphia. •He invented high speed cutting tools, the patents of which, made him so rich that he retired at the age of 45. •The rest of life he spent as an unpaid management consultant to promote his ideas of scientific management.
HENRI FAYOL •A Frenchman, whose work was recognised almost two decades after his death. •His work first appeared in “ Administration industrielle et generale” in 1916. •In 1949, it gained recognition •Fayol suggested that managers need not be born- they can be made… in business schools. •Fayol said that industrial undertakings could be divided into: 1.Technical i.e. production 2.Commercial i.e. buying,selling and exchange 3.Financial : i.e. search for, and optimum use of , capital 4.Security : I.e. protection of people and property 5.Accounting 6.Managerial ( planning,organising,directing,co-ordination and control) BEHAVIOURAL STUDIES •Hawthorne experiments:
b) Relay assembly test room
Elton Mayo and his team
Chester Barnard •Concept of organisation •Formal organisation •Informal organisation Functions of an executive