List and define at least two general reasons and two change-specific reasons for resistance to change, including how it applies to labor negotiations.

Expert Answers
M.P. Ossa eNotes educator| Certified Educator

Resistance to change is a very common behavior among humans. Nobody likes to move away from a comfort zone. Unfortunately, those who are unable (or unwilling) to make changes soon become obsolete employees, not to mention counterproductive to the mission and the vision of everything. The best way for companies to be proactive against said individuals is to open the channels of communication at all times and provide as much information as needed regarding any changes in work environment. 

General reasons to refuse to change: 

1. Lack of awareness/information-  When it comes to bargaining units, members often have a very bad habit of just getting all the information that they need from their leaders...only. Members tend to merely pay their fees and allow for their bargaining leaders to "translate", or paraphrase what is going on. The problem is that, when this happens, each party will relate the information as they see it; it will never be an impartial or objective exchange of information. If, to this, we add anxiety, fear, frustration, and hidden agendas, there will never be an agreeable way to convince someone who is misinformed on why they need to make changes.

2. Comfort zone issues- Employees are unwilling to do more, make compromises, or even bother consider them because they are perfectly happy doing what they have always done and getting what they have always gotten. Unfortunately for them, getting predictable and exacting results does not work for every organization and changes are needed to achieve new goals. 

Change-Specific reasons not to change: 

3. Low Trust- Where there is animosity and very low rapport there will not be any motivation to do as someone else asks. In the case of bargaining units there has always been a "warzone" mentality when it comes to employer/employee relations. This is a fact that even luminaries such as Hicks and Von Mises have declared. Therefore, if there is not a pattern of good communication, mutual respect, and reasonable demands, there will indeed be very difficult to make anyone do anything. 

4. Complementarity- This is a business term that refers to making gains from reorganization by switching some things with others. For this, new incentives, training, and policies need to exist as the back up rationale as to why the need for change. Immediate implementation may not be possible unless it is done transitionally and systematically. Bargaining unit members will not comply with change for purposes of complementarity unless these factors are in place.