Lesson planning consists on mapping the process through which information will be delivered. When lesson planning takes place one must consider, above all things, the learning processes of the students that will listen, decode, connect, and apply the information that they will be learning. In order to do this it is imperative that the instructor considers the most accepted methodologies of delivering instruction based on how students process information. The most accepted model, as you may know, is the newly-revised Bloom's taxonomy.
A key element to consider during lesson planning should be the building of schema through the activation of the student's prior knowledge. Learning is a process in which the learner builds upon what is already known to them. This is called scaffolding, and it is part of the theory of constructivism. Hence, the lesson should be geared entirely toward building upon what the student knows, and then allow the student to process the information and make the necessary connections.
Therefore, the process of planning lessons and other forms of instruction should include a number of diverse strategies that serve both the different intelligences of the students, and their own individual capacities of retaining and processing information. All this makes lesson planning synonymous to mapping the entire thinking process of the student taking close consideration to both their strengths and their weaknesses.