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Jonathan Swift was first and foremost a satirist. His goal in his writing was not so much to produce literary art, but to make a political and social statement that would hopefully lead to positive action to help improve the lives of people.
Swift tackled some of the problems he saw in early 18th century British life with the satirical novel Gulliver's Travels. As Gulliver travels he encounters strange lands and people that comment in some way on the injustices he perceived in the real world.
In Lilliput, Swift writes about a monarch, the Emperor, who governs randomly and with cruel pettiness. He exists to perpetuate his own power and nothing more. We also learn of the big-enders, little-enders, low-heelers, and high-heelers, who represent the senseless divisions of society that cause class injustice and suffering.
The land of Laputa makes fun of the snobbery of "higher learning" for learning's sake. These academics and scientists exist for their own mental pleasure, but their work does not benefit anybody.
In Brobdingnag, Gulliver encounters giants who enslave him for their own entertainment. This satirizes the human tendency to simply take what they want for their own use, regardless of how if affects others, as with slavery.
Human beings, in Gulliver's Travels, are distorted in the sense that they do not value actions and qualities that make a positive impact in the world. They are ruled by selfish amibition, greed, and jealousy.
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