This makes a lot of sense and this idea goes back as far as Plato, who said that we don't really see reality but just shadows of reality. By that theory, when we talk or even think about things, we are only thinking about our words for them, which is different from the reality.
As far as examples, this is difficult because we obviously cannot talk about things that we don't know about. However, we can point to areas where our vocabulary influences our thinking. For example, we have a word for "man" and a word for "woman" and no other words until recently for people who are somewhere in between. This conditions us to think that people must either be men or women in order to be normal and natural.