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Language planning refers to planning and other actions taken by governments and other higher level organization in designed to influence the languages used in society. It includes various actions such as promoting or discouraging use of specific languages including revival of old languages no longer in use, improving the quality of language in terms of its vocabulary, improving and maintaining linguistic purity, uniformity of spelling and grammar, standardization of language with several dialects, improving the availability to different types of literature or knowledge base available in specific languages, and inter lingual communication.
While every country is conceded with many of these aspect of language planning, this language planning function becomes very important for the countries in which different people use different languages. Because of this the language planning is very important for a country like India.
The issue of language planning in India has become very complex because of two kinds of problems. First the tussle between Hindi and English, and the second is tussle between having a common language for the whole country versus different region or states promoting their own regional languages of the country. Also here is a demand by some people to revive the use of Sanskrit Which has traditionally been the language of scholars and is also the language of the ancient text that enjoy the status of religious books among Hindus.
Till independence from the British colonial rule in 1947, the official language used in India by government, business, and higher education was English. However after independence, Hindi, the language spoken and understood by maximum number of people in India was adopted as the national language, with a provision of gradually changing over from use of English to Use of Hindi. However with passage of time the whole country was broadly divided in two groups one supporting continuation of English, while the other demanding earliest introduction of replacement of English by Hindi.
Also with passage of time the different region speaking scored of different regional languages started demanding that their regional language should have precedence over either English or Hindi for government, business and education within their regions.
However it is too simplistic to assume that the language planning problems in India or for that mater in any country an understood just in terms of "who plans what, for whom and how".
For some detailed information of language planning problems and issues in India please see the websites referred below.The second of the sight referred below gives a more detailed coverage of language planning process. In addition it also language planning issues in several countries including India.
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