Since many of the above sentences are similar in their syntax, or their arrangement, using some as examples should serve you for the remainder of the others.
As a notation, remember, too, that the articles a, an, and the are always considered adjectives.
1. The basketball team is playing Northwestern High School tomorrow.
The = adjective; basketball = adjective; team = noun; is playing (verb phrase) is = helping, or auxiliary verb; playing = present participle [is playing = the present progressive tense)
Northwestern High School = proper noun
tomorrow = adverb of time
2. My dog has a really big jaw.
My = possessive pronoun, used as an adjective; dog = common noun; has = transitive verb; a = article; adjective ;really = adverb of degree; jaw = common noun
3. Hitler was the most dangerous man in the world.
Hitler = proper noun; was = linking verb; the = adjective; most = adverb of degree; dangerous = adjective; man = common noun; in = preposition; the = adjective; world = common noun.
5. The boy was running and slipped on a banana peel.
The = adjective; boy = common noun; was = helping verb; running = participle used as a main verb in present progressive tense; and = conjunction; slipped = intransitive verb, a main verb, part of compound predicate; on = preposition; a = adjective; banana = adjective (It is actually a common noun used as an adjective in this sentence); peel = common noun.