What was the name of the book Plato wrote to outline his ideal government and what was that ideal system of government?
Plato most directly addresses the ideal government in his most famous work, Republic. In this book, framed, like all of Plato's works, as a series of dialogues between Socrates and others, Socrates establishes that the establishment of justice ought to be the goal of any society, and that justice was the only proper foundation of good government. The problem was that only philosophers could really understand the nature of true justice. So the best government would be run by philosopher-kings, people who would have, based on their understanding of justice, the best interests of all the people at heart. He does not advocate a dictatorship, basically believing that enlightened philosophers would not attempt to establish one. But it is important to note that he did not approve of democracy, either. Plato's ideal republic would guarantee justice and freedom, but it would do so by placing government in the hands of those capable of understanding these things--a highly educated elite steeped in philosophical understanding.