Charles II was the ruler of England, Scotland and Ireland. Born in 1630, he was only 19 years old when his father, Charles I, was executed and went into exile after his defeat the Battle of Worcester. In 1660 he was invited back to England to rule but his early reign was marked by several major catastrophes: the Great Plague of 1665, the Great Fire of London in 1666 and defeat at the hands of the Dutch in 1667. Charles did, however, make some achievements as king. He found the Royal Society in 1660 and oversaw the Passage of Navigation Acts, which restricted the use of foreign ships for trade with the colonies. His reign also made England more prosperous through trade with India, the East Indies and America.