What is the kinetic energy of moving charges in an electric circuit called? 

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The kinetic energy of electrons flowing in a circuit is called electrical energy or electricity. It is sometimes called current electricity to distinguish it from static electricity, which is caused by the discharge of a charge build-up and doesn't flow in circuits. 

Electrical conductors are substances, usually metals, which have...

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The kinetic energy of electrons flowing in a circuit is called electrical energy or electricity. It is sometimes called current electricity to distinguish it from static electricity, which is caused by the discharge of a charge build-up and doesn't flow in circuits. 

Electrical conductors are substances, usually metals, which have outer electrons that are free to move through out the material. Electrons carry charge through the conductor by moving in a direction that will tend to equalize charge and minimize the potential difference.  If you compare an electrical circuit to a waterfall, the electrons are like the moving water. Current, the rate at which electrons move through a circuit, could be compared to the water current. The height of the waterfall represents the voltage in the circuit, which is the electrical potential difference between the two electrodes. As water goes over the waterfall, its potential energy is converted to kinetic energy. In the same way a voltage source converts electrical potential to kinetic energy of electrons.

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