Jupiter is an outer planet. Outer planets are those whose orbits are outside that of the Asteroid Belt. In other words, they are father from the sun than the Asteroid Belt is. The planets, in order from the Sun outward, are:
Inner planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars
Outer planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.
Jupiter is a gas giant. It has an atmosphere of helium and hydrogen, has a weather system that includes very long-lasting storms such as its red spot, and it has about 1300 times the volume of Earth. Its mass exceeds that of all of the other planets combined.
Jupiter has several moons. Some of its larger moons were first observed by Galileo and provided evidence than bodies in space orbit other bodies.