Jupiter is an outer planet.
The acronym "my very eager mother just served us nachos" is often used to remember the order of the planets. The order of the planets (from closest to furthest away from the sun) is: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. (Pluto used to be considered the outermost planet. However, pluto is no longer considered a planet.
The inner planets include Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars. Inner planets are terrestrial (made of solid components). Thus, they all have tectonic surfaces and features of such surfaces (rift valleys, volcanoes, etc.). Three of the four inner planets (Earth, Venus and Mars) have enough atmosphere to generate weather.
The outer planets include Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. The outer planets are gaseous and considerably larger than the inner planets. They are sometimes referred to as the Jovian planets or gas giants.
The asteroid belt separates the inner planets from the outer planets.