Items (i)-(viii) consist of words used to describe, the entities described being given in parentheses. How do the descriptions work? For each one, decide whether it is
(a) by mention of the part to stand for the whole;
(b) by mention of a member to stand for the category;
(c) by mention of the whole to stand for the part;
(d) by mention of the category to stand for a member;
(e) by mention of a member of one category to stand for a member of another (metaphor).
(i) wheels (car)
(ii) artillery (revolver)
(iii) in black and white (published)
(iv) the feline (tiger)
(v) on his feet (making a speech)
(vi) a V neck (sweater) V
(vii) she wears the trousers (she dominates)
(viii) goddesses (Hollywood actresses)
The problem with answering these types of questions is that they're often open to interpretation. Some are straightforward, like "wheels" being used to refer to a car--the wheels are clearly a part of the car that are used to represent the whole (a). But others aren't quite so clear--with the V neck and the sweater, for instance, one might argue that either is a member or a category, depending on your perspective, so the answers could be a or d.
Because of this, some of my answers differ from akannan's. You will want to use your own reasoning to determine what you think is correct:
i. a (explained above)
ii. d (artillery is a category of weaponry and the revolver is a member of that category)
iii. e (to me, "in black and white" is an idiom that relies on metaphor to be understood, but you might also make the argument for the answer to be a, as one characteristic of the published work is used to describe the whole thing)
iv. d (feline is a category of the animal kingdom and the tiger is a member of that category, so to say feline when referring to a tiger is to mention the category to stand for a member)
v. e (a common metaphor, as are vii and viii)
vi. b (I chose b because I think of a V neck as a type of sweater, but one could argue the opposite and select d)
What is being sought in the question is the examination of relationships of concepts to one another. The words on the outside of the parenthesis are describing what is on the inside. Given the parameters of the question, I keep coming back to this point: “Items (i)-(viii) consist of words used to describe, the entities described being given in parentheses. How do the descriptions work? For each one, decide whether it is…” In each of the descriptions, each little roman number describes what is inside the parentheses. From this point, we start with what is inside and work from there. In i., the car is inside the parenthesis. Therefore, the description outside of it is a part of the whole. Wheels describe a part, an essential part, of the car. For i., letter A would work.
In letter E, a metaphorical relationship is being sought between a member of one category to stand for a member of another. The best examples of such a connection are seen in v., vii. and viii. In “wearing the trousers” a type of metaphorical relationship is being shown to accentuate power and control. The same type of accentuation is seen in “on his feet” in making a speech. It shows a state of readiness and focused drive. This is also seen in the description of Hollywood actresses as goddesses. In all three cases, neither is actually what is being described. Rather, they are descriptive expressions that employ an extended comparison (metaphor) to show a member of one category standing for another. Therefore for v., vii., and viii., letter E could apply.
Roman numbers ii and iv are similar to one another. In both of these settings, what is inside the parenthesis is smaller, and fits into the larger outside category. For example, in ii. Revolver is inside and it is part of the larger category of artillery which is on the outside. In iv., tiger is a type of feline. Tiger is inside and feline outside. In both, the smaller member of the category is inside, while the larger category is outside. Thus, in both of these, letter B applies, for the member stands for the category. What is inside would be the member (revolver and tiger) of a larger category (artillery and feline.)
This leaves iii and vi. In these situations, we are in the opposite of the above situation. What is inside the parenthesis is larger, and the smaller members fit into it. For example in iii., black and white is outside and it represents one way of being published, which is inside. In vi, a V- Neck is outside and it represents one type of sweater, which is inside. Therefore, in both of these, letter D applies, for the category stands for a member. What is inside would be the category (published and sweater) and what is outside is its member (black and white, V- neck).
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