Discuss Islamic Influence on the world. The Muslim golden Age and their achievementsThe Islamic world's golden age? when did it begin? when did it last (Time period)? Thier Achievements, when did...

Discuss Islamic Influence on the world. The Muslim golden Age and their achievements

The Islamic world's golden age? when did it begin? when did it last (Time period)? Thier Achievements, when did it end?

Expert Answers
litteacher8 eNotes educator| Certified Educator

It seems like the Islamic Golden Age went from 750 to 1258, so it lasted about 500 years.  Here is a link for some more specific and hopefully non-biased information about it: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islamic_Golden_Age

There were advancements in science, art, philosophy and medicine.

etotheeyepi | Student

In posting #22 I speculated about the reason for the end to the Islamic Golden Age.  I going to do that again.

I want to be sensitve to other cultures, but my own cultural bias make that difficult when other cultures limit freedom of speech.  On the other hand my granddaddy says "better to ask forgiveness than permission."

I found another reason for the demise of Islamic culture.  Pakistan is limiting the exchange of information on the internet due to the nonislamic content of websites.  One must wonder if 800 years ago, restrictions on the free-flow of information in the Islamic Empire contributed to its end.


etotheeyepi | Student

I said in a previous post that Omar Kayyam discovered the solution to the quadratic equation. (At least they teach us that is school.)  Recently I read in a book by  Stephen Hawking that an Indian mathematician discovered the method.

Wikipedia suggests

"The Bakhshali Manuscript written in India in the 7th century AD contained an algebraic formula for solving quadratic equations."


I should say that even if Khayyam did not discovered the solution to the quadratic equation, he has still infuluenced English speaking culture because the British and American school systems instist that children read his poetry.


huggybizzak14322 | Student

I actuall expected racisme, but you people are mature, Masha Allah in other words nice of you not to disgrace the religion.

kwakye102 | Student

THanks for all your helpful contributions

etotheeyepi | Student

In my search for Muslim scholars who influenced the world beyond Islam, I often can't tell if a particular scholar influenced western culture or if western culture rediscovered an idea independent of Islam.

So far, I think I have found two men who clearly have had an impact outside of Islam. They are Omar Khayyam and Ibn Al Haytheam.

"Many of Ibn Al-Haytham’s works, especially his huge Book of Optics, were translated into Latin by the medieval scholar Gerard of Cremona. This has a profound impact on the 13th-century big thinkers like Roger Bacon and Witelo, and ..."


etotheeyepi | Student

Al Jazari (1136-1206) designed machines to convert the potential energy of a water source to pump water or move clocks. He was an Arab or a Kurd; the verdict is not in on his nationality.  Ben Kingsley stars in an interesting Video as Al Jazari in posting #12.

Al Jazari’s ideas may have been used in Italy by Giovanni de Dondi in 1364 and Francesco di Giorgio in 1501.  He may also have influenced Leonardo Di Vinci.

The source of this information does not include anything about how Al Jazari’s work might have been used to make paper, gun powder, or flour; but one must wonder about the possibility.


faizanjattt | Student

islam is fastest growing religion of world because islam have complete way of life,islam guides its followers that how to live? how to eat? what are rights of your parents? your neighbers,other people .... so islam is religion of peace for those who know the real teachings of islam. 

etotheeyepi | Student

So what happened to the Golden Age? Where did it go?

The answer might come from a Harvard economics professor, Eric Chaney.  He asks questions: Why does the Arab World have a "democracy deficit?" And why do they remain "economically stunted?" He notes that the greatest deficit and the least economic growth appears in countries which were conquered by Arab armies after the death of the Prophet Muhammad. Arab political control brought centralized government, weak civil society, and a dependent merchant class.


Fareed Zakaria. Time, "A Region at War with its History." April 18, 2012. Page 24. 

etotheeyepi | Student

Here in California, the world history textbooks say that we know about Rome and Greece because Muslim scholars preserved the content of ancient Greek and Latin manuscript in Arabic. 

Well, that's what the textbooks say, but they don't give any details.  So far I have not found and example of an Arabic manuscript, which is the basis for modern knowledge of classical culture.  For example, as near as I call tell, our knowledge of Thucydides is based on Greek manuscripts rather than Arabic manuscripts.

So, the question:

What ancient Greek or Latin author exists in English because of an Arabic manuscript?

drahmad1989 | Student

Islam has a vast scope on the whole world. Period of golden age is always for truth ( Islam) . you can see that every preaching of Islam is till that moment is proving true to life and nature. Not a single step or order is against the nature. 

so nature is always going to do better . Golden age of muslims and Islam is different thing. whenever muslims follow preechings of Islam in true sense that period is the best one among all periods. 

we can divide periods :

by following Islam as a true religious and this period is the period of Followers Sahaba(R.A.)  of Holy Prophet(P.B.U.H.)  and this is golfen era of the Islam . As Islam spread over the half of the world.

and seccond is that when muslim try to follow Islam preeching and thinks on all aspects of orders with reason. Muslims gets hold on almost all sciences at that time because they were first to make experiments in science.

etotheeyepi | Student

Averroes, aka Ibn Rushd, (1126–1198)

A commentator of Aristotle, who wrote two of three different commentaries on the same work, and some 38 commentaries by him on the works of Aristotle have been identified.  Although his writings had only marginal impact in Islamic countries, his works had a huge impact in the Latin West in the 12th and 13th centuries.


etotheeyepi | Student

In reply to #17

This thread is about "Islamic influence on the world."  Seems to me that means Islamic influence on people other than Muslims.

So the question remains, who, other than Muslims, did al-Mutanabbi influence?

loraaa | Student



Who or what did al-Mutanabbi influence in China, India, or Europe?

wow,,, o_O

well,Because he is Muslim, and his was wonderful writings urging the leaders to the Islamic conquests.

etotheeyepi | Student



Who or what did al-Mutanabbi influence in China, India, or Europe?

loraaa | Student
also, the wonderful poet almotanbi writes,,, Defiantly live, or in honors die Midstslashing blades and banners flapping high Rage is best dispatched bylances’ points, and Spearing spiteful chests shall their spitedeny
etotheeyepi | Student

The original post asks about Islamic influence.  It Islam had any influence outside the Islamic Empire it must have been because scholars in other cultures studied Arabic.

One milestone in that reguard would be the Laudian Professor of Arabic established at Oxford in 1636. 

frizzyperm | Student

The Golden Age of Islam gave us the wonderful poet Omar Khayyam...


The Moving Finger writes: and, having writ,
Moves on: nor all thy Piety nor Wit
Shall lure it back to cancel half a Line,
Nor all thy Tears wash out a Word of it.


Look not above, there is no answer there;
Pray not, for no one listens to your prayer;
Near is as near to God as any Far,
And Here is just the same deceit as There.


And do you think that unto such as you;
A maggot-minded, starved, fanatic crew:
God gave the secret, and denied it me?--
Well, well, what matters it! Believe that, too.

mjay25 | Student

And here is a link to a very interesting and entertaining video by a famous well-known English actor, Sir Ben Kingsley. Here it is: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JZDe9DCx7Wk

Bonus Extra: Did you know that the 'English' numbers we use today (1,2,3 etc) are actually Arabic and were invented during the Muslim Golden Age! However, many continued to use Indian numbers as they had been doing so before.

mjay25 | Student

The Golden Age of the Islamic world -when Muslims in Spain (Andalusia) made great advancements in the fields of mathematics, architecture, the sciences including astronomy and health among other subjects.

It lasted for around 700-800 years (approx. 650 -1500 CE [note: exact dates vary, but it mainly began with the spread of Islam]. Interestingly, within this time included the Golden Age of Judaism (where Jewish scholars worked alongside Muslim ones to translate various Greek and Latin documents).

Here is a Jewish source to confirm this:


Some of the achievements during the Muslim Golden Age include:

The discovery of circulation of the blood, the invention of the number 0 - by Muhammed Al Khwarizmi, (camera obscura) camera technology - Ibn Haytham – called ‘the father of optics’ -he also contributed much to astronomy, compasses and the measuring of time, calculus and algebra, aviation - parachuting – by Abbas ibn Furnas – he was the first to invent the parachute and make a scientific attempt at flying (and died while doing so). Jaber ibn Hayan - known as the ‘father of chemistry’ - he established the perfume industry, and many chemicals, including distilled alcohol.  There’s also water turbines, high sky scrapers, clock technology among many more.

Here is a link to further information regarding discoveries and inventions.



etotheeyepi | Student

The first use of gunpowder must have happened in China, but the Muslims may have improved on the Chinese invention.

This article 


suggests that Muslims improved the method of purification of saltpetre. The earliest torpedo was also first described in 1270 by Hasan al-Rammah in The Book of Military Horsemanship and Ingenious War Devices.

The earliest surviving documentary evidence for the use of the hand cannon, a forerunner of the handgun,  are from several Arabic manuscripts dated to the 14th century. Al-Hassan argues that these are based on earlier originals and that they report hand-held cannons being used by the Mamluks at the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260.


loraaa | Student

In addition to above,
 I think,That Muslims are the first to use gunpowder.

etotheeyepi | Student

Paper must have been an important innovation, which made the Golden Age possible.

Muslims in Samarkand in last half of the eighth century learned to make paper by copying a process provided by Chinese prisoners of war. They refined the process to make a thicker sheet of paper on which scholars could write with pen and ink rather than the Chinese brush.  They used water-powered pulp mills and trip hammers replaced the Chinese mortar a pestle. Paper must have become inexpensive because mechants used it to wrap merchandise. 


etotheeyepi | Student

I wonder why the years 750 and 1258 are associated with the Golden Age?  It must have something to do with the fact that the first Abbasid Caliph moved his capital to Baghdad in 750 and a Mongol army destroyed Bagdad in 1258.

Something about the Abbasid Caliphs must have encouraged scholarship.

alilion | Student

But remember..Islam is the fastest growing Religion...

etotheeyepi | Student

American school children learn about Omar Khayyam, a scholar of the Golden Age.  One day when I tried to appear learned with the parent of one of my girl friends, I referred to Khayyam as an Arab scholar who invented the completing the square method of solving quadratic equations. My girl friend's family came here from Iran when the mullahs kicked the Shah out of the country, so no one will be surprised that my girl friend's father rather sternly corrected me by saying that Khayyam was Persian.

This webpage


says that Khayyam invented a method for solving cubic equations. It says nothing about quadratic equations, but my teachers think that Khayyam invented the completing the square method.

This website


says, "A complete history of mathematics of medieval Islam cannot yet be written, since so many of these Arabic manuscripts lie unstudied."

Maybe we don't know yet what Muslims knew about Math during the Golden Age.

loraaa | Student

Islam may have begun because it had gold to buy an army. See Gold Mining in Arabia and the Rise of the Islamic State by Gene W Heck.


I live in a part of California with immigrants from all over the world.  My Iranian neighors insist that the Muslim Golden Age was a Persian Golden Age.


Islamic Golden Age was "and will remain" Arab Golden Age, not Persian.
 Islam emerged from Arabia, and then moved to Iran.
 Currently, the Islamic Age is weak but I do not think it will end.

etotheeyepi | Student

Islam may have begun because it had gold to buy an army. See Gold Mining in Arabia and the Rise of the Islamic State by Gene W Heck.


I live in a part of California with immigrants from all over the world.  My Iranian neighors insist that the Muslim Golden Age was a Persian Golden Age.