I agree that the above is a crucial passage. I would submit one more, which seems to sum up some of the spiritual and social expectations of good Muslims:
It is not righteousness that you turn your faces towards East or West. But it is righteousness to believe in God and the Day of Judgment, and the Angels, and the Book, and the Messengers. To spend of your sustenance out of love for Him, for your kin, for orphans, for the needy, for the wayfarer, for those who ask, and for the freeing of slaves. To be steadfast in prayer, and give purifying alms. To fulfill the contracts which you have made. And to be firm and patient, in suffering and adversity, and through all periods of panic. Such are the people of truth, the God-conscious.
Honesty, sympathy for the poor and oppressed, alms, and of course the profound faith demanded of Muslims are all summed up in this passage. Faith, prayer, and alms, in fact, are three of the famous "five pillars" of Islam, along with pilgrimage and fasting during Ramadan.