India and Pakistan have been political rivals for many years because of their many differences, but they also share some striking similarities in terms of their societies, economies and politics.
Politically the two nations have similar models. Pakistan is a parliamentary democracy with Islam as its state religion while India is a federal system with a parliament. India’s central government is increasingly more powerful than its states.
Economically, both countries have been able to double their per capita income. Considering that India and Pakistan’s populations have increased so dramatically, this is an incredible feat and has yet to be reproduced in countries such as China. Both countries have also had remarkable success in fighting poverty, but Pakistan’s overall poverty rate is much lower. Both countries are now self-sufficient agriculturally and have a growing middle class.
Socially the two countries are very different. India is a research and science superpower. India creates more PhD’s annually that all of Pakistan’s combined. Indian also has a lower birth rate than Pakistan, which has helped stabilize growth in the nation. Health care and infant mortality rates are better in India, as are female education rates in most areas. India is also a predominantly Hindu nation, while Pakistan is predominantly Muslim.