Vancouver Lights

by Earle Birney
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In "Vancouver Lights," "falter and halt" in line 7 is an example of which? a. consonance b. apostrophe c. internal rhyme d. masculine rhyme

In "Vancouver Lights," the phrase "falter and halt" is an example of consonance.

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"Vancouver Lights" includes the words "falter and halt" in line 7. The sounds of this phrase create an example of consonance. Consonance is the repetition of consonant sounds near each other in a sentence or phrase. The "alt" sound is repeated in both words, and that is the source of the consonance.

The literary term "apostrophe" refers to an exclamation. Some examples might be the "Oh" in "Oh, I see you now," or the word "computer" in the sentence, "Computer! why do you keep crashing?" This term doesn't apply to Birney's phrase of "falter and halt."

An internal rhyme is rhyme created by words that occur within a line of poetry. A well-known example occurs in the speech of the witches in Shakespeare's Macbeth: "Double, double, toil and trouble." Although "falter and halt" occurs within the same line of poetry, the two words are not a true rhyme.

A masculine rhyme occurs only in the final stressed syllables of rhyming words. Some examples are "sip and unzip" or "believe and achieve." The words "falter and halt" do not create masculine rhyme because the repeated "alt" sound occurs at the beginning of the word "falter" and not the end.

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