In To Kill a Mockingbird, what evidence does Atticus bring out that discredits Bob Ewell's story?

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As the previous educator mentions, Atticus discredits Bob Ewell's testimony in court by proving that a right-handed man like Tom (who also has a disabled left arm) physically could not have hit Mayella on the right side of her face. She also had marks all around her neck, not just on one side, which shows that someone other than Tom must have wrapped both hands around her neck to choke her. The only other person with Mayella that night was her father before the sheriff came to investigate, so that implies that Mr. Ewell probably beat up his own daughter. That's pretty shameful!

Another sad fact that Atticus brings to light is that Bob Ewell's first reaction wasn't for the safety of his daughter, but for "justice" for what he supposedly saw happening between Mayella and Tom. When Atticus asks Bob why he didn't get immediate medical attention for Mayella, Scout summarizes what Bob says in the following quote:

The witness said he never thought of it, he had never called a doctor to any of his'n in his life, and if he had it would have cost him five dollars. (175)

Atticus does not mention that five dollars should not have been the main concern for him that night. He simply moves on with the questioning and allows that to settle on the jury and the courtroom.

Later on, however, in chapter 23, it is reported by Miss Stephanie Crawford that Bob attempted to pick a fight with Atticus on the street. Why would Bob try to pick a fight with Atticus when Tom still got convicted for the crime he didn't commit? It is because Bob Ewell was ashamed of how he was discredited by Atticus in court. When Jem tries to convince his father to do something about Bob Ewell before he gets hurt, Atticus responds by saying,

Jem, see if you can stand in Bob Ewell's shoes a minute. I destroyed his last shred of credibility at that trial, if he had any to begin with. The man had to have some kind of comeback, his kind always does. So if spitting in my face and threatening me saved Mayella Ewell one extra beating, that's something I'll gladly take. He had to take it out on somebody and I'd rather it be me than that houseful of children out there. (218)

This passage shows that Atticus knows exactly why Bob Ewell spit on him that day: it is because he had destroyed Mr. Ewell's credibility in public. Furthermore, Atticus proves that he is a good attorney because that is a big part of his job. Attorneys need to discredit opposing testimonies if they can, and Atticus didn't hold back simply because Bob Ewell is white and Tom is black. Most people expected Atticus to throw the trial in favor of a white man, but he didn't, which also might have made Mr. Ewell angry and ashamed.

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In chapter 17, Bob Ewell testifies that on the evening of November 21, he returned home to hear Mayella screaming at the top of her lungs and witnessed Tom Robinson raping her when he looked in the window of his home. After watching Tom Robinson run out of the house, Bob saw Mayella lying on the ground and immediately ran to fetch Sheriff Tate. During Atticus's cross-examination, Bob testifies that Mayella was severely beaten but that he never thought about seeking medical attention. Bob also confirms Sheriff Tate's testimony regarding the location and severity of Mayella's injuries. Atticus then requests that Bob Ewell write his signature in order to show the jury that he is left-handed.

Earlier, Sheriff Tate testified that Mayella had been choked and that there were bruises encircling her neck. Tate also testified that predominately the right side of Mayella's face was beaten and bruised. Atticus proceeds to discredit Bob's testimony by proving that Tom Robinson could not have been responsible for Mayella's injuries because of his severe handicap. Tom Robinson's left arm is twelve inches shorter than his right and completely useless, which means that he could have not been able to choke Mayella around her neck. The location of Mayella's bruises also suggests that a left-handed person beat her. Therefore, Atticus implies that Bob Ewell was his daughter's perpetrator by making him sign his name, which completely undermines and discredits Bob's fabricated testimony.

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There are several points that Mr. Finch elicits from witnesses that discredit the testimony of Bob Ewell.

Even before Bob Ewell takes the witness stand, Sheriff Tate testifies about Mayella's injuries. He reports on his being called by Ewell and what he saw when he arrived. Tate states that Mayella was bruised on both arms, and her right eye was blackened. Also, Tate testifies that Mayella had apparently been choked because there were finger marks on her neck. Atticus Finch asks the sheriff the following:

"All around her throat? At the back of her neck?"
"I'd say they were all around, Mr. Finch."

The fact that Mayella's neck was bruised with finger marks all around her throat indicates that someone used both hands to choke her. And, the blackened right eye suggests that Mayella Ewell was hit by someone's left fist. Anyone who knows Tom Robinson knows that Tom Robinson's left arm is withered and rendered useless as is his lifeless left hand. Therefore, if Tom were the one who choked Mayella, marks would only be on one side of her neck.

Further, when Bob Ewell testifies, he claims that he heard Mayella screaming "like a stuck hog." When he ran into the house, he further alleges, Mayella was lying on the floor "squallin.'" Ewell also states that he left her and ran for the Sheriff Tate "quick as I could." Therefore, he neglected to make certain if she were injured badly at all. He also states that he did not call for a doctor. These admissions of Ewell's suggest that he has exaggerated his testimony.

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After having Bob Ewell sign his name, showing to the jury that Bob was in fact left handed, he goes on to make the major argument of his case. Tom Robinson, whose left arm had its muscles ripped loose in a cotton gin accident, displays his useless left arm to the court with his inability to hold his hand on the bible in order to swear in. We see that the attacker, who led exclusively with his right, is unlikely to be Tom Robinson because his left arm has been rendered useless.
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There are two pieces of evidence that discredit Bob Ewell completely and they have to work together. First, Atticus shows that Bob Ewell is left-handed, and Bob tries to show that he can use both hands, but it's too late. Then, when he asks Tom to rise after Mayella pointed him out, the courtroom sees the other necessary piece of evidence: Tom's left arm is 12 inches shorter than his right.

This proves it would have been impossible to leave the injuries on Mayella that were there. It also leaves the question on the table, if not Tom who? The fact that Bob was left-handed proved that it was possible he beat his daughter because the person who hurt her led exclusively with his left.

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There are two main things that Atticus brings out that I think are important.

First, he brings out the fact that Bob Ewell is left handed.  He shows that Mayella was almost certainly beaten by someone who was using his left hand.

Second, he brings out that Ewell does not call for a doctor.  He says that this shows that Ewell knew Mayella had not been hurt by Tom Robinson.  If she had, he would surely have called a doctor.

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