In To Kill a Mockingbird, how does Atticus show courage throughout the book?

In To Kill a Mockingbird, how does Atticus show courage throughout the book?

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Atticus displays both inner and outward courage. As a person of integrity, he shows inner courage when he stands by his principles even when it means other people might speak ill of him or think less of him. He is willing to endure interpersonal conflict rather than compromise what he knows is right. He displays this type of courage on several occasions. When Alexandra, his sister, suggests that her presence in the home means Atticus can let Calpurnia go, he remains loyal to her despite his sister's disapproval. When Jem destroys Mrs. Dubose's flowers, Atticus requires Jem to make amends even though Mrs. Dubose has made rude and inflammatory remarks about him. His determination to repay her unkindness with kindness shows inner strength of character; he is not intimidated by his neighbor's hateful invectives. He displays that same inner courage when he chooses to defend Tom Robinson even though it will cause most people in the community to criticize him.

One of his most dramatic displays of outward courage is when Atticus faces the rabid dog. In order to protect his children and others in the neighborhood, he shoots the dangerous animal, even though he hasn't fired a gun in years. This event foreshadows his courage when he fends off the dangerous mob that wants to pull Tom Robinson out of jail, presumably to lynch him. He doesn't back down even though they could easily overcome him physically and harm him for protecting Robinson.

Throughout the novel, Atticus displays admirable courage, combining inner strength of character with outward bravery.

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Two instances of courage stand out when it comes to Atticus. First, Atticus decides to defend Tom Robinson. He knows that this is not popular and that people will hate him because of it. Moreover, he knows that he will lose the case, but he does it anyway. He commits, because it is the right thing to do, which requires great courage. Here is a dialogue between Scout and Atticus: 

"Atticus, are we going to win it?”

“No, honey.”

“Then why—”

“Simply because we were licked a hundred years before we started is no reason for us not to try to win,” Atticus said.

As for page number, all editions are different. This quote is found in chapter 9 about three pages in. 

Second, in chapter 15, Atticus faces a mob of people, led by Mr. Cunningham. They mob has been drinking and they want one thing - to harm Tom Robinson. Moreover, because Atticus is guarding him, he is in harms way and he knows it, but he still defends this. This, too, takes great courage. 

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There are many positive adjectives of personality to describe Aticus Finch and 'courageous' is certainly one of them. For one thing, at a time of great social conservatism in a small town he he does the best  he can as a sole parent for his son and daughter, despite the frowns of social disapproval this would bring (think about the criticism from Atticus's own sister).

In terms of an individual incident, we saw Atticus show extraordinary courage in placing himself directly in harm's way when he guards Tom Robinson's jail cell. He ends up having to try and talk down a lynch mob that night.

The fact that Atticus is prepared to defend a black man on such a serious charge is also testimony to his courage. He knew that it would harm his reputation, invite ridicule and scorn from the townsfolk and even place his safety and his children's safety in danger. However, he pressed ahead because he wanted to see real social justice in his community.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      

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Atticus Finch is an archetype of personal courage in the novel, and his courage is demonstrated again and again. Atticus not only takes Tom Robinson's case, he defends Tom vigorously, pitting himself against the prevailing attitudes and customs of Maycomb. Atticus stands up to his neighbors' racism, knowing that in doing so, he is exposing himself and his family to difficult times. His moral courage is as strong as his physical courage, which is also demonstrated in the novel.

Atticus shows great physical courage when he positions himself between Tom Robinson and the lynch mob that has come for him. Sitting alone in front of the jail, Atticus waits for what he expects will happen. He is unarmed. The only time he shows fear occurs when the children suddenly show up and put themselves at risk. Atticus shows no fear for his own safety. With courage, he once again honors his moral principles, protecting Tom's life by risking his own.

Another display of Atticus' courage concerns his shooting of the rabid dog in front of the Radley house. Heck Tate turns to Atticus to kill the sick animal. Although he hasn't fired a gun in years. Atticus accepts the responsibility to bring the dog down in one shot, knowing that if he misses, disaster will result. 

Throughout the novel, Atticus acts with courage in living up to his principles and in accepting moral responsibility. 

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