The three techniques of persuasion, according to Aristotle in The Art of Rhetoric, are based on the appeal to logos (reason), ethos (belief system and character of the speaker and listeners), and pathos (emotions of the listeners). These three elements work in harmony to either convince the listeners to change their minds about an issue or to take action, and all should be present in order for a speech to be effective. Martin Luther King's "I Have a Dream" speech is just such a speech.
At points in the speech, King manages to appeal to his listeners' reason and ethics (and express his own belief system) at the same time:
We must forever conduct our struggle on the high plane of dignity and discipline. We must not allow our creative protest to degenerate into physical violence. Again and again, we must rise to the majestic heights of meeting physical force with soul force. (8)
During 1963, when King gave this speech, the struggle for civil rights was characterized by violence, for the most...
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