In the Garden Scene (Act 3, Scene 4) in Richard II, how does Shakespeare use symbolism and metaphors?

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The most obvious use of symbolism and metaphors can be found in the conversation between the gardener and his servant, which the queen and her lady overhear. The gardener bids his servant to "bind up" the "dangling apricocks" whose "prodigal weight" seems to oppress their "sire." In this speech, he is talking literally about a tree whose trailing fronds are unruly and are oppressing the tree from which they sprung. He suggests that his servants should cut off the heads of the sprays which are growing too fast, behaving as "executioner." The metaphorical meaning is made very clear, particularly through the use of such stately words as "commonwealth" and "government" and in the gardener's use of the word "our" rather than "my." We can infer that while the gardener is talking about his own domain, the garden, we could extend his advice to the domain of the king—the "garden" that is his kingdom.

The gardener is suggesting that unruly parts of a tree should be cut off so as not to pull...

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