In Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, what figurative language is used in Juliet's soliloquy from act 2, scene 2, lines 33–49?

In Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, the figurative language used in Juliet's soliloquy, act 2, scene 2, lines 33–49 includes metonymy, anaphora, and metaphor.

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Metonymy is a literary device that substitutes one idea for something closely related to it. In the line "Deny thy father and refuse thy name," Juliet uses name to really mean family. She isn't just calling Romeo to turn from his name in this line but to turn away...

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Metonymy is a literary device that substitutes one idea for something closely related to it. In the line "Deny thy father and refuse thy name," Juliet uses name to really mean family. She isn't just calling Romeo to turn from his name in this line but to turn away from his entire family, which is the source of their angst. Likewise, she swears to "no longer be a Capulet" in return. She is willing to not only give up her name but all that is associated with her family in order to be with Romeo.

Anaphora is the repetition of certain words in successive phrases, clauses, or lines of poetry. This structure is present in the following lines (bold added for emphasis):

It is nor hand nor foot
Nor arm nor face nor any other part
Belonging to a man.

This long string of clauses is separated with nor dividing the various body parts, which both enunciates Juliet's reflective thoughts in this soliloquy and makes that final, unnamed body part a humorous addition for the benefit of the audience as she seems to build to that rather sexual reference.

A metaphor is employed in these lines:

That which we call a rose
By any other name would smell as sweet;

Here, a rose represents things that are beautiful and desirable. Romeo is Juliet's rose, but the rose could represent any other object of beauty. The idea is that a rose's beauty isn't diminished simply by changing the word by which it is identified, just as Romeo's appeal cannot be changed because of the last name he carries, whether that happens to be Montague or some other name.

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In this passage, as Juliet laments the differences between their families, she switches from speaking to Romeo to speaking about him, and then back again. She begins and ends by using apostrophe, or direct address.

O Romeo!...

Romeo, doff thy name....

The passage as a whole is an example of a conceit, or an extended metaphor. Juliet compares a person to a name in a number of different ways. Her comparison makes the point that the two things—a person and their name—are different. In doing so, she lists a number of parts. For emphasis, she employs syndeton. This device involves the addition and repetition of a conjunction for emphasis, in a situation where a comma would suffice. Juliet does this with "nor."

Juliet uses another metaphor, comparing a person to a rose and its sweet aroma to goodness.

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In this soliloquy on the importance of names, Juliet uses figurative language to discuss her difficulties in a non-literal way, using imagery and other allusions to convey her meaning. She asks Romeo to "refuse thy name," focusing upon the name as something distinct from Romeo himself. It is the name "Montague" that becomes Juliet's "enemy," rather than Romeo himself. To help emphasize this point, Juliet uses enumeration to break down the various parts of a man, none of which his name directly represents: Romeo's name is not his "hand, nor foot, nor arm, nor face." This forces us to picture a man as he naturally is built, and consider the sense, or lack of sense, in grouping these elements together under a name.

Romeo's name, Juliet is saying, is "no part of" his corporeal reality. She uses an example to further her point, stating that a rose "by any other name would smell as sweet." This brings to mind the image of a rose, which does not in itself have to be appended to its name in order for us to visualize it and imagine how it smells. Juliet's language appeals to multiple senses in order to draw a distinction between the signifier (the name) and the signified (the thing itself).

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Alliteration can be seen in the line: "it is nor hand, nor foot, nor arm, nor for face, nor any other part belonging to a man." This is an example of alliteration because the consonant "n" is repeated with the repetition of the word "nor." Alliteration is a figure of speech because it makes use of redundant repetition in order to emphasize a point. This line also makes use of climax, because it begins with the least important body elements, such as "hand" or "foot" and ends with the most important, such as "face," and finally, "nor any other part belonging to a man." This final phrase is especially important because it can be translated as a sexual innuendo.

Parallelism can be seen in the line: "Deny thy father and refuse thy name." Shakespeare used the parallel syntactical structure of verb+pronoun+noun/verb+pronoun+noun in order to emphasize the point.

Antimetabole can be seen in the line: "So Romeo would, were he not Romeo call'd." This is an example of antimetabole because the line repeats the verb "to be" through the conjugations "would" and "were" and then reverses them: "Romeo would, were he not." Also, the clause "were he not Romeo call'd" reverses the normal word order and is therefore an example of hyperbaton. Normally we would say something like, "if he was not called Romeo."

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