In Romeo and Juliet, why does Mercutio make fun of Romeo after they leave the Capulets' party?

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Mercutio makes fun of Romeo in Act 2 scene 1 of Shakespeare's tragedyRomeo & Juliet . In Act 1 scene 5, Romeo meets Juliet and they profess their love for each other. Shortly thereafter, they share a kiss. After the kiss, the nurse calls Juliet away because her mother...

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Mercutio makes fun of Romeo in Act 2 scene 1 of Shakespeare's tragedy Romeo & Juliet. In Act 1 scene 5, Romeo meets Juliet and they profess their love for each other. Shortly thereafter, they share a kiss. After the kiss, the nurse calls Juliet away because her mother wants to speak with her. Romeo's cousin, Benvolio, beckons him to leave with him at this time. Romeo leaves with Benvolio and Mercutio but then sneaks off. Benvolio asks Mercutio to call for Romeo, and Mercutio says he'll do better than that, he'll conjure him, too. He means he'll call him forth like he would summon a spirit.

He calls out to Romeo:

Nay, I’ll conjure too!
"Romeo! Humours, madman, passion, lover!
Appear thou in the likeness of a sigh!
Speak but one rhyme, and I am satisfied.
Cry but “Ay me!” Pronounce but “love” and “dove.”
Speak to my gossip Venus one fair word,
One nickname for her purblind son and heir,
Young Abraham Cupid, he that shot so true
When King Cophetua loved the beggar maid.—
He heareth not, he stirreth not, he moveth not.
The ape is dead, and I must conjure him.—
I conjure thee by Rosaline’s bright eyes,
By her high forehead and her scarlet lip,
By her fine foot, straight leg, and quivering thigh,
And the demesnes that there adjacent lie,
That in thy likeness thou appear to us."
In this bawdy speech, he taunts Romeo with insults to get him to come out from hiding. Mercutio calls him "madman" and a "silly ape," hoping that Romeo will appear and give a rebuttal. When Romeo doesn't answer, Mercutio concludes that he must be dead, so he will make him appear by conjuring him. He begins talking about Rosaline's physical form, unaware that Romeo has fallen out of love with Rosaline and in love with Juliet. He begins by commenting on Rosaline's bright eyes and ends the speech with comments of a more sexual nature. 
 
The night of the Capulets' party has been one of joking, teasing, and laughter for Romeo and his friends. Mercutio continues the merriment with his taunting of Romeo. Mercutio begins playful banter with Romeo from his entrance in the play, telling him he's being too cautious and serious, like a night watchman, in Act 1 scene 4 in this speech: 
"Tut, dun’s the mouse, the constable’s own word.
If thou art dun, we’ll draw thee from the mire,
Or—save your reverence—love, wherein thou stick’st
Up to the ears."
Mercutio has a very different, and much more jaded view of love than Romeo does. His chiding of Romeo is meant to pull him out of his despair so that they can have the carefree fun that Mercutio values. His teasing of Romeo isn't based on cruelty or bullying. It's connotative of a young man who wants to have his friend Romeo engage in the fun escapades of youth instead of pining over unrequited love. 
 
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The primary reason Mercutio makes fun of Romeo is because he has a strong feeling Romeo is hiding nearby and means to lure him out by insulting him. Not having witnessed Romeo's dance with Juliet, Mercutio believes that nothing has changed in the last hour or so and that Romeo is still in love with Rosaline. Mercutio mocks Romeo's feelings for Rosaline, letting us know that not only does he think Romeo is a fool for falling in love, but he does not think falling in love is respectable.

Romeo does overhear these jibes and, even though he no longer cares for Rosaline and has fallen in love with Juliet, the words still upset him, because he knows that Mercutio will not understand his feelings for Juliet. Therefore, Romeo decides to remain hidden and not confide in his friend.

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In act 2, scene 1, Benvolio and Mercutio search for Romeo, who has climbed over the orchard wall to see Juliet. Mercutio is completely unaware that Romeo has fallen for Juliet and is still under the impression that Romeo is lovesick over Rosaline. Mercutio, who is a witty skeptic, makes fun of Romeo by demanding that he show himself in the name of Rosaline. Mercutio then proceeds to make crude sexual jokes directed at Romeo, hoping that Romeo will respond to his derogatory remarks. However, Romeo does not show and waits outside of Juliet's balcony. Overall, the reason Mercutio makes fun of Romeo is because he wants Romeo to reveal himself. Mercutio is also a rather callous man and thinks that Romeo is overreacting about Rosaline's unrequited love. He believes that Romeo needs to stop acting depressed and cheer up because he is young, wealthy, and attractive, which is why he makes fun of him when he is not present.

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After the "masquers" leave the Capulet party, Romeo among them, Romeo leaps an orchard wall and hides. Mercutio teases Romeo with crass sexual humor in an attempt to get Romeo to emerge from his hiding place. Ironically, Mercutio's humor focuses on Rosaline, while Romeo has already forgotten Rosaline and fallen in love with Juliet.

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