In Moby Dick, how does Melville compare "mortal reason" and "heaven's sense" through Pip's experience in the middle of the ocean all alone?

"Mortal reason" is associated with Stubb's common-sense advice to Pip to "stick to the boat"; Pip, however, when he jumps out of the boat, receives a different kind of understanding, perceiving the "foot of God" working the loom of heaven. When Pip tries to explain this to his crew mates, they think he is crazy.

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Pip's experience of the open ocean is terrifying, and his experience turns him into an "idiot," or, in other words, drives him mad.

The narrator speculates that during his time in the open ocean, Pip witnessed "God's foot on upon the treadle of the loom," meaning he had an epiphany...

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Pip's experience of the open ocean is terrifying, and his experience turns him into an "idiot," or, in other words, drives him mad.

The narrator speculates that during his time in the open ocean, Pip witnessed "God's foot on upon the treadle of the loom," meaning he had an epiphany about the nature of the universe. So it is ironic, in a way, that Pip, who has received this wisdom, is deemed an idiot when he tries to explain what happened to him to his shipmates.

The "mortal reason" Melville refers to can be understood as both Stubb's fixation on the business of catching whales and his "wholesome advice" to Pip to "stick to the boat," which Pip, in the heat of the moment, is unable to follow. This is contrasted with the that other kind of common sense, "heaven's sense," which has to do with the cosmic workings of the universe, the "strange shapes of the unwarped primal world."

Melville's irony extends beyond these contrasting "senses." Pip is portrayed as a comic figure; his fun-loving character is given a cosmic quality when it turns the "round horizon into one star-belled tambourine." Yet Pip, perhaps for this very quality, is the person given access to this divine vision.

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