In Julius Caesar, how is the role of Caesar's ghost in act 4 important in the third scene? What does this appearance of the ghost indicate to Brutus?

The ghost's appearance in act 4 of Julius Caesar is important because it establishes a mood of impending doom for the conspirators. It reminds Brutus of his guilt and the gravity of his mistakes. The ghost's visit makes it pretty obvious to Brutus that he will not survive the upcoming battle.

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At the end of act 4, scene 3, Caesar's ghost appears to Brutus.

It is time for bed, but Brutus is troubled. He asks Lucius to play the lute for him, but Lucius soon falls asleep. Brutus doesn't have the heart to wake him, so he turns to reading his book. However, in the light of his taper he sees a "monstrous apparition." Brutus says to it,

Art thou some god, some angel, or some devil
That makest my blood cold and my hair to stare?
Speak to me what thou art.
The ghost replies,
Thy evil spirit, Brutus.
The ghost also tells Brutus that he will see him again at Philippi. Philippi is where Octavius and Antony are marching their armies. Brutus and Cassius have made the decision to meet them in battle. The ghost's words that Brutus will see him at Philippi are an evil omen. They suggest that Brutus will see Caesar again there because he will be killed and become a ghost like Caesar.
Brutus wakes his companions Varro, Claudio, and Lucius to ask if they have seen the ghost. None have. Brutus decides to hasten on to Philippi in the morning.
The appearance of the ghost is a troubling sign. It is hard to tell whether or not it is real, because none of the others see it. Whatever the case, the spirit calling itself Brutus's evil spirit is a sign of Brutus's sense of guilt and upset at how the assassination of Caesar has turned out. One would think, too, that the warning he might die at Philippi would persuade Brutus to reconsider the battle, but instead he moves ahead. The ghost's appearance is important because it foreshadows the doom coming to meet Brutus.
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Towards the end of act 4, scene 3 of Julius Caesar, the ghost of the slain dictator appears to Brutus as he tries to sleep in his tent. The ghost delivers the ominous message that Brutus will see him again at Philippi.

The sight of the ghost brings feelings of guilt to Brutus's mind. It is a grim reminder that Brutus took part in the murder of a dear friend of his. The ghost also signifies that ill fortune awaits Brutus at the upcoming battle against the forces of Mark Antony and Octavius. Brutus comes to realize that the events he set in motion with the assassination of Caesar will lead to many more deaths in the near future. After the ghost departs, Brutus wakes up the other men in his tent. He sends word for Cassius to send his army to Philippi first. Brutus will follow later.

Although the ghost's appearance would seem to serve as a warning, Brutus is still committed to going into battle. Perhaps the visit by the ghost of Caesar serves to remind Brutus that he has made terrible errors in judgment and committed a great sin by betraying Caesar. He may feel that he deserves the fate that awaits him. As the scene ends, Brutus seems committed to facing his destiny. As such, the ghost serves to indicate impending doom for the conspirators.

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In "Julius Caesar," the role of Caesar's ghost is similar to that of ghosts in "Hamlet" and "Macbeth"; that is, the apparition stirs the conscience of the character who sees it and portends further evil.

In Act IV, Caesar's ghost appears to Brutus, who is between consciousness and sleep as he reads in his tent before the battle at Philippi.  When he sees the ghost, Brutus asks, "Speak to me what thou art," and the ghost replies, "Thy evil spirit, Brutus" (IV,iii,280-281). This statement by Caesar's ghost stirs the conscience of Brutus for his past acts as well as disturbing him as he ponders his future battle.

So, Brutus, who has made errors in judgment earlier such as allowing Marc Antony to live after the assassination, begins to have pangs of conscience over his guilt for another poor judgment: killing his friend, Caesar.  He also may be experiencing a premonition as the ghost tells him, "To tell thee thou shalt see me at Philippi"(IV,iii, 282).

The spirit of Caesar is present each time Brutus makes a poor decision as well as each time he has a pang of conscience for an evil act. For, Brutus's initial act against Caesar, his murder, while committed for principle by Brutus, was done for cupidity by others.  Secondly, shortly before Caesar's appearance, Brutus, in tragic arrogance, argues almost to the point of murder again as he and Cassius discuss Brutus's failure to aid Lucius Pella, a friend of Cassius.  Thirdly, with the next appearance of the ghost, the battle of Philippi, Brutus commits a fatal error in military judgment as he rushes onto the field, but must later retreat.  This defeat leads to the suicide of Brutus.

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