In Julius Caesar, how does Decius persuade Caesar to go to the Senate House?

In Julius Caesar, Decius persuades Caesar to go to the Senate House by offering him a favorable interpretation of Calpurnia's dream and informing him that the senators are prepared to crown him king. Decius also tells Caesar that the senators may change their minds if he does not show up or will mock him for staying home.

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In act 2, scene 2, Calpurnia pleads with Caesar not to travel to the Senate on account of poor omens and her prophetic dream, successfully swaying him with her pleas. This changes, however, with the arrival of Decius, who is able to convince Caesar to act otherwise.

Ultimately, Decius's success...

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In act 2, scene 2, Calpurnia pleads with Caesar not to travel to the Senate on account of poor omens and her prophetic dream, successfully swaying him with her pleas. This changes, however, with the arrival of Decius, who is able to convince Caesar to act otherwise.

Ultimately, Decius's success depends on an appeal to Caesar's pride and vanity. He interprets Calpurnia's dream (in which she saw a bleeding statue of Caesar, with Roman citizens washing their hands in the blood) in a manner more pleasing to Caesar's ego. Decius claims that this image of the bleeding statue, rather than being a portent of doom, is actually a testament to Caesar's greatness:

Your statue spouting blood in many pipes,

In which so many smiling Romans bathed,

Signifies that from you great Rome shall suck

Reviving blood, and that great men shall press

For tinctures, stains, relics and cognizance. (2.2.85–89)

Indeed, it might also be worth noting that in this passage, Shakespeare seems to be invoking imagery associated with early modern monarchy, by which kings were often believed to possess healing powers and the sick would gather around them in the hopes of receiving healing. It is an interpretation that flatters Caesar's ego and sense of self-importance.

At the same time, Decius also utilizes shaming tactics against Caesar. He goes on to tell Caesar that, while the Senate had intended to provide Caesar a crown, they might take back that honor if Caesar does not arrive. Indeed, he goes on to say, such a decision could even make Caesar an object of derision:

Besides, it were a mock

Apt to be render'd, for someone to say,

"Break up the senate till another time,

When Caesar's wife shall meet with better dreams.

If Caesar hide himself, shall they not whisper,

"Lo! Caesar is afraid?" (2.2.96–101)

Through these tactics, Decius is ultimately able to bend Caesar to his will. He convinces Caesar to attend the Senate, thus walking to his own destruction.

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One of Cassius's primary concerns regarding their assassination plot is how to persuade Caesar to travel to the Capitol. In act 2, scene 1, Cassius states that Caesar has grown superstitious as of late and may not attend the Senate. Decius eases Cassius's concerns by assuring him that he can flatter Caesar and convince him to attend the Senate. Decius understands that Caesar's weakness is his pride and is confident that he can humor him.

In act 2, scene, 2, Caesar's wife, Calphurnia, begs him not to travel to the Capitol. Calphurnia elaborates on several recent omens, which are unsettling and disturbing. Calphurnia also tells her husband that she dreamt his statue was bleeding from hundreds of wounds while "lusty Romans" bathed in his blood. Upon listening to Calphurnia's dream, Caesar agrees to stay home to appease her.

Decius then enters the scene and persuades Caesar to leave by offering a favorable, flattering interpretation of the dream. Decius tells Caesar that Calphurnia's dream is "fair and fortunate" and signifies that "Rome shall suck / Reviving blood, and that great men shall press / For tinctures, stains, relics, and cognizance" from him. Decius also adds that the senators plan on offering Caesar the crown today and may change their minds if he does not show.

Decius concludes by telling Caesar that the senators may mock him and question if he is afraid. After listening to Decius's argument, Caesar is persuaded to follow him to the capitol, where the hostile conspirators await. Decius knew Caesar's pride would prevent him from staying home and successfully persuades him to travel to the Senate.

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Decius knows that Julius Caesar really wants to go to the Senate House because he is expecting the senators to make him a king. The only obstacle to getting Caesar to go is his wife Calpurnia. She has had one particularly bad dream and feels sure that her husband will be going to his death if he leaves their home. 

Decius first discounts Calpurnia's dream by reinterpreting it.

This dream is all amiss interpreted;
It was a vision fair and fortunate.
Your statue spouting blood in many pipes,
In which so many smiling Romans bathed,
Signifies that from you great Rome shall suck
Reviving blood, and that great men shall press
For tinctures, stains, relics, and cognizance.
This by Calpurnia's dream is signified.   (II.2)

Caesar quickly approves of Decius' interpretation of Calpurnia's dream. This sets Caesar up, so to speak, for what Decius has to say next.

                ...the Senate have concluded
To give this day a crown to mighty Caesar.
If you shall send them word you will not come,
Their minds may change. Besides, it were a mock
Apt to be render'd, for some one to say
“Break up the Senate till another time,
When Caesar's wife shall meet with better dreams.”
If Caesar hide himself, shall they not whisper
“Lo, Caesar is afraid”?               (II.2)

So, according to the wily Decius, if Caesar goes to the Senate House he will receive the crown for which he has been scheming for a long while. It will be the culmination of Caesar's dreams of glory. But, on the other hand, if he stays at home today, the senators may change their minds. They may feel resentful because they have been slighted. They may think that Caesar doesn't really want the crown. After all, he appeared to be refusing it three times when Mark Antony offered it, or some facsimile of a crown, at the Lupercal games. Furthermore, the senators may lose their high opinion of Caesar if they suspect he is afraid to come because of his wife's bad dreams. 

Caesar prides himself on his courage. He can't allow himself to be kept at home by his wife's fears. He tells her:

How foolish do your fears seem now, Calpurnia!
I am ashamed I did yield to them.
Bring me my robe, for I will go.       (II.2)

Act II, Scene 2 might end with the line "Bring me my robe, for I will go," except that Shakespeare evidently wanted to show the servant going to fetch the robe and coming back with it to help his master put it on. The robe will be important in Act III, Scene 2 when Antony will show a duplicate robe to the plebeians which is shredded and bloodstained. Among other things, the duplicate robe will remind the theater audience that Calpurnia was right in trying to keep her husband at home and Caesar wrong to listen to Decius.

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