In James Joyce's "The Dead," what is the significance of the snow?

In James Joyce's "The Dead," the snow is significant because it symbolizes the universal attributes of death and the hold that the past can have upon the living. Just as snow in winter is inevitable, so death will come to all.

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The symbol of snow stretches throughout the entire story "The Dead" by James Joyce.

In the very beginning of the story, the snow is beginning to fall. Gabriel comes in wearing galoshes and brushing off the snow. We see right from the start that he is resistant to the snow, brushing it off, wearing a large overcoat and galoshes, encouraging his wife also to cover herself and protect herself against the snow.

Later on, we see this paragraph, which uses the word "snow" three times, describing different settings.

People, perhaps, were standing in the snow on the quay outside, gazing up at the lighted windows and listening to the waltz music. The air was pure there. In the distance lay the park where the trees were weighted with snow. The Wellington Monument wore a gleaming cap of snow that flashed westward over the white field of Fifteen Acres.

In this short story, snow is the uniting symbol between death and life. Just as Gabriel is resistant to the snow, so he is resistant to death. In his speech, he acknowledges the past, but only briefly. He quickly moves on, wanting to only embrace life and celebrate the past only where it is positive.

However, we see at the end of the story that as he has been celebrating life, his wife has been lost in thoughts of death. He is attempting to embrace the present, while she is held by the past.

Throughout it all, both are deep in snow. Each stands at the window to watch the snow as they talk. No matter where they are in the current moment, they are followed by heavy snow, which symbolizes the past and the inevitability of death.

Joyce ends the story by showing that just as the snow falls across Ireland, so too death is inevitable and will reach everyone in the country at some point.

His soul swooned slowly as he heard the snow falling faintly through the universe and faintly falling, like the descent of their last end, upon all the living and the dead.

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The snow is the symbol of death and the hold the dead have over the living, in Ireland in general and in Gabriel's life in particular. Snow follows Gabriel from the start of the story: as he comes into the warm Christmas house he tries to scrape the snow off his "goloshes," and a "light fringe of snow" lays on his shoulder like "a cape." Thus he enters the warm present unconsciously brushed and dusted with death and carrying with him in the symbol of the snow the past that the dead represent.

Gretta, his wife, is also caught up in the past and the dead, specifically her dead beloved, Michael Furey. Gabriel says of her, with unconscious irony, that "she'd walk home in the snow if she were let." Yes, Gretta would walk into the past occupied by the dead, if she could. 

While the others are enjoying the Christmas dinner, Gabriel...

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wishes he could be outside, walking by the river, and through the park, where the snow would be lying on the (dead) branches of the trees and the Wellington monument. "How much more pleasant it would be there than at the supper table!" he thinks. He believes the air is "pure" there, in the snow. 

He is, however, unconscious of the hold of death and the dead over his life until the end of the story, when he realizes the love his wife still bears for her long dead Michael Furey. The snow that is falling all over Ireland as the story closes, Gabriel realizes, is "like the descent of their end," the symbol that we all die.

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You have identified an important symbol in this excellent short story. The snow that dominates this tale is something that is shown to link both the living and the dead in the state of paralysis that dominates all of the characters, save for the active and vibrant Michael Furey. If you look in particular at the way that the snow is presented in the last paragraph of the story, it is clear that what is emphasised is the way that the snow unites the dead and the living together, even Michael Furey himself. As such, the snow is shown to be universal:

Yes, the newspapers were right: snow was general all over Ireland. It was falling on every part of the dark central plain, on the treeeless hills, falling softly upon the Bog of Allen and, farther westward, softly falling into the dark mutinous Shannon waves. It was falling, to, upon every part of the lonely churchyard on the hill where Michael Furey lay buried... His soul swooned slowly as he heard the snow falling faintly through the universe and faintly falling, like the descent of their last end, upon all the living and the dead.

Note the universal reference to the "universe" and the snow falling "upon all the living and the dead." The snow therefore symbolises the paralysis that is demonstrated by Gabriel Conroy throughout the short story. He is constantly concerned by what others think about him, and this stops him from truly living. This is what he realises in his epiphany before the snow starts again. The snow emphasises the way in which "living" and "dead" are somewhat blurred categories. There are some people who are living, like Gabriel, that, through their paralysis, have never actually "lived," whereas Michael Furey is an example of a "dead" person who has lived far more than Gabriel ever has, in spite of his early demise. Yet the snow unites them both, mocking Gabriel's earlier thought in his speech that we must not brood over the dead. Gretta cannot do this, and at the end of the story, Gabriel realises how futile such attempts are as well. The snow could also symbolise his own emotional isolation and coldness, but remember that this is a condition that is applied all across Ireland.

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In Joyce's "The Dead," how is the image of snow/winter used to symbolize death?

All the various manifestations of winter are used to symbolize mortality in "The Dead." The snow, like death, falls indiscriminately on each and every one of Dublin's inhabitants. Though physically alive, they are spiritually dead, numbed into mute submission by a stagnant, priest-ridden culture. Mortality may be universal, but a deadened existence upon this earth is not. People choose to live such lives of spiritual and intellectual torpor. Gabriel Conroy hasn't really lived; yet Michael Furey, who's physically dead, has more life in him on account of the passionate intensity he displayed in his short time on earth.

Gretta believes that Michael died of pneumonia after coming to see her when it was wet and cold. In that sense, Michael's death symbolizes for Joyce what Ireland does to free creative spirits. They simply cannot live in such a culturally bleak and barren environment, cannot fully express themselves. His grave, like the whole of Ireland on that winter's night, is covered with snow. But he still lives on in the mind of Gretta, his insistent courtship finding lyrical expression in the song "The Lass of Aughrim." The song, like all art, will endure long after we're all dead and gone.

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In Joyce's "The Dead," how is the image of snow/winter used to symbolize death?

Arriving at the party at the home of Gabriel Conroy's three aunts late, Gabriel explains his tardiness as he scrapes the snow from his goloshes,

"...they forget that my wife here takes three mortal hours to dress herself."

Early, then, there is the suggestion of paralysis and death (the use of "mortal," )that the images of snow represent.  As Gabriel continues to scrape his shoes

a light fringe of snow lay like a cape on the shoulders of his overcoat and like toecaps on the toes of his goloshes, and....the buttons of his overcoat slipped with a squeaking noise through the snow-stiffened frieze.

The snow touches the outer parts of Gabriel, symbolizing the death of his and Gretta's passion for one another.  Near midnight when the party begins to end and guests depart, Gabriel enjoys the walk to the hotel room in the snow with Gretta, having found her alluring as she has previously leaned upon the banisters of the stairway in the house, listening with "grace and mystery" in her attitude.  As they walk along, however, Gabriel points to "the statue,"  a statue of Daniel O'Connell, who achieved Catholic emancipation in 1829, and was known as "The Liberator."  This, too, is covered with snow, a shroud over the real emancipation of the irish from the British rule.

At the hotel, Gabriel finally is alone with his wife; however, it is a night of ghosts and death as Gretta thinks of a young man from long, long ago. And, Gabriel feels humiliated as she reminisces about Michael Furey, who braved the cold to tell her of his love.  Then, just as the snow has hung on the shoulders of Gabriel's coat earlier,

[T]he air of the room chilled his shoulders....One by one they were all becoming shades.  Better pass boldly into that other world, in the full glory of some passions, than fade and wither dismally with age....His soul had approached that region where dwell the vast hosts of the dead.

As though dying himself, Gabriel watches the snow flakes "fall obliquely against the lamplight."  Sensing his paralysis and the paralysis of the Irish people, Gabriel realizes that the time has arrived for his "journey westward,." Thus, the shroud of snow lays "thickly drifted on the crooked crosses and headstones as Gabriel feels himself united with the dead as he is not in control and the lines between real life and the illusionary are blurred.

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