In detail, describe the Ottoman Empire and the Safavid Empire, and draw a relationship between the two empires. Be specific.

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The Safavid (1502-1736) and Ottoman (1299-1922) empires existed simultaneously for a few centuries only. The citizens of each empire were ethnically different; Ottomans were Turkish and Safavids were Iranian. Shia Islam became the state religion under the first Shah, Ismail. Sunni Islam was the state religion under the Ottoman Empire....

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The Safavid (1502-1736) and Ottoman (1299-1922) empires existed simultaneously for a few centuries only. The citizens of each empire were ethnically different; Ottomans were Turkish and Safavids were Iranian. Shia Islam became the state religion under the first Shah, Ismail. Sunni Islam was the state religion under the Ottoman Empire. Mehmet II (popularly known as Mehmet the Conquerer) reigned more or less during the first part of the Safavid empire under Ismail, who unified an Iranian empire for the first time since the Arab conquest of the region almost nine centuries earlier.

Both empires changed their capitals at at least one point in their histories. The Ottoman Empire was more expansive at its zenith, consistently posing a threat to the Safavids. The general consensus is that the Safavids developed superior art and architecture, while the Ottomans had a more sophisticated military. That said, both had very hierarchical and inextricably linked civil and military classes. The threat posed by the neighboring empire helped the Safavid empire to develop a flexible and accomplished army. Both empires were known as “gunpowder empires” (along with the Mughal Empire) for their relatively modern technology.

The Ottoman and Safavid empires eventually did battle in 1514, resulting in the former’s territorial acquisition of Safavid lands. The Safavids would decline in the 18th century for a combination of reasons, including a weakened military and the lack of a succession principle. The Ottomans Empire would last for several centuries beyond, waging war in Crimea, until the Turkish independence movement in the early 20th century.

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