In chapter 10 of The Lord of the Flies, what is the significance of the title, "The Shell and the Glasses"?

In chapter 10 of Lord of the Flies, the significance of the title, "The Shell and the Glasses," lies in the fact that, in this chapter, both the conch and Piggy's glasses become insignificant. Jack's faction has no need for the conch. His subordinates also steal Piggy's glasses so that he and Ralph can't try to start a fire.

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The significance of chapter 10’s title, “The Shell and the Glasses,” might lie in its lack of significance. The title arguably carries an ironic meaning. William Golding has made the conch and Piggy’s glasses a part of the title only to show how little power they now have. Although they occupy an important place—they’re in the title of the chapter, after all—they do not have much consequence on the island anymore.

In the previous chapter, one gets the impression that Ralph and Piggy’s way of doing things is officially over. The feast, the celebration, and the murder strongly indicate that most of the boys prefer Jack’s bellicose, dictatorial regime to the reasonable, democratic order symbolized by Ralph, Piggy, Piggy’s glasses, and the conch.

At the start of chapter 10, Ralph asks Piggy, “Piggy? Are you the only one left?” Piggy responds that some of the little children are still on their side. Ralph replies that they don’t count. Thus, Ralph and Piggy find themselves in the minority.

Later, as Piggy and Ralph brainstorm how to deal with their marginalized and precarious situation, Piggy suggests that Ralph use the conch to “call an assembly.” Piggy’s idea causes Ralph to laugh. The laugh reinforces the conch’s transformation into a trivial object. It doesn’t have the force that it once did; it’s a joke.

While the conch has been neutralized, Piggy’s glasses, for most of the chapter, retain their use. Ralph and Piggy still have hope that they can start a fire and get themselves out of this chaos. Alas, that hope vanishes when Jack’s subordinates attack Ralph and Piggy’s shelter and take Piggy’s glasses. By the end of chapter 10, they have no glasses either. As with the conch, the significance of the glasses has been squashed.

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From the beginning, the conch shell symbolizes rules and order for this little civilization. Chapter 10 follows the murder of Simon, and Ralph and Piggy are struggling with the reality of what has happened. They try to distance themselves a bit from the actions of the group, convincing themselves that they were outside the real circle of action and therefore can't be held responsible. Struggling about what to do next, Piggy tells Ralph that he's still the leader because they still have the conch. Ralph sees this as ludicrous considering how far the group has fallen from any sense of order. Still, the two kind of hang on to the idea connecting the conch to a sense of reason.

When Jack's boys storm their camp, Piggy thinks that they have come for the conch, to claim their right as the leaders of the island.

Ralph trotted down the pale beach and jumped on to the platform. The conch still glimmered by the chief's seat. He gazed for a moment or two, then went back to Piggy.

"They didn't take the conch."

"I know. They didn't come for the conch. They came for something else. Ralph—what am I going to do?"

Jack's boys no longer care for any pretense of order, nor for what the conch originally symbolized. It is all dead to them as they run wild and follow Jack's orders and blood thirst.

What they care about is killing. And to eat the fruits of their labor, they need fire. And to build a fire, they need glasses. Piggy's glasses.

The boys steal what they need (glasses) in order to live as they want, so the effects of the conch shell are effectively forgotten—and so is order.

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The title of chapter 10 is significant because both the conch shell and glasses have symbolic meaning throughout the novel and are treated with disregard by Jack's hunters at the end of the chapter. The conch shell symbolizes civilization and structure while Piggy's glasses symbolize intellect and rationality.

At the beginning of the chapter, Ralph refuses to blow the conch shell to call an assembly because he feels that it is useless. The lack of authority and obedience to the conch following Simon's death indicates that there is no hope for civility on the island. The disregard for the conch also represents Ralph's loss of authority. When Jack's hunters raid Ralph's camp, Piggy initially thinks that Jack wants to steal the conch. However, the boys discover that Jack does not want the conch as it sits untouched among the ruins of the shelter. Also, Piggy's glasses are stolen towards the end of the chapter, leaving him blind and more vulnerable. The loss of Piggy's glasses deprives Ralph of his intellectual counselor and foreshadows Piggy's impending death. The title of chapter 10 indicates that the conch has lost its authority and Piggy's stolen glasses represent Ralph's inability to think of a viable solution to solve their predicament. 

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The conch has stood for power up to this point in the novel because whoever had it could speak.  During the night when Jack's tribe invades Ralph's group's camp, they don't steal the conch which is only symbolic of power.  They steal Piggy's glasses - the one tool they have with which to make fire and therefore, the real source of power.

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