In Aldous Huxley's Brave New World, what does John the Savage mean when he says, "O brave new world that has such people in it"?

John the Savage first uses the phrase "O brave new world" sincerely and idealistically. The words then recur when he sees the lower-caste factory workers, and again after Linda's death. The last time the phrase occurs to him, however, he regards it as "a challenge, a command" to transform the nightmare into something worthy of Miranda's description.

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It is ironic that only a handful of the people in the brave new world would understand the title of the book, or be familiar with the source of the quotation which provides it. When John the Savage uses the phrase for the first time, he asks if Bernard remembers Miranda's line from The Tempest, to which Bernard, who is an Alpha Plus and well-educated by the standards of his society, replies "Who's Miranda?" John's meaning, therefore, is slightly undercut even as he utters the phrase ecstatically for the first time.

John is sincere when he first refers to the society as a brave new world, but the irony of the phrase deepens each time he uses it, until the last time. He is horrified to see a factory staffed by Gammas, Deltas and Epsilions:

"O brave new world..." By some malice of his memory the Savage found himself repeating Miranda's words. "O brave new world that has such people in it."

Finally, after Linda's death, John understands the words "brave new world" as an exhortation and an...

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