In act IV of Macbeth, how does Macduff prove to Malcolm that he is trustworthy?

In act VI of Macbeth, Macduff proves to Malcolm that he is trustworthy by declaring that Malcolm is not only unfit to rule but unfit to live. Malcolm distrusts Macduff at first because Macduff seems too willing to excuse Malcolm's supposed flaws, so Malcolm believes that Macduff is working for Macbeth. When Macduff no longer wants Malcolm to come back to Scotland, Malcolm realizes that Macduff is trustworthy.

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In act 4, scene 3, Malcolm determines to put Macduff's trustworthiness to the test. Thus, in this scene, he admits to possessing a series of vices that would make him a terrible ruler. He claims to be overly lustful, then extremely greedy, before finally claiming to possess, in Shakespeare's words, no "king-becoming graces." As Malcolm states:

I have no relish of them; but abound

In the division of each several crime,

Acting it many ways. Nay, had I power, I should

Pour the sweet milk of concord into hell,

Uproar the universal peace, confound

All unity on the earth.

At this point, Macduff falls into despair, rejecting Malcolm as unfit for ruling Scotland. As it happens, however, this reaction is precisely what Malcolm was looking for: it is Macduff's rejection of Malcolm that proves his trustworthy nature.

Remember, Macbeth had previously usurped and murdered Malcolm's father, Duncan, and Malcolm is planning to win back the throne through armed conflict. In such a context, Malcolm would have been deeply worried about Macbeth sending agents among his forces. By rejecting Malcolm, however, Macduff inadvertently confirms that he is not a spy, and lacks these ulterior motives.

Perhaps even more fundamentally, however, Macduff's own despairing rejection of Malcolm establishes Macduff's own character as someone of principle. As he establishes in this encounter, he will not follow Malcolm blindly and without criticism, but rather is driven by a higher sense of virtue and love for his country. Even beyond the threat of Macbeth's spies and agents, Malcolm must also wrestle with Macbeth's very example as a trusted vassal who betrayed and murdered his king for his own political gain.

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In act 4, Malcolm tests Macduff's honesty by pretending to be a truly horrible person. He claims that, in himself, "All the particular of vice [are] so grafted / That, when they shall be opened, black Macbeth / Will seem as pure as snow" (4.2.62–64). First, Malcolm says that he is lustful and lascivious so that not even all the women in Scotland could satisfy him. Next, Malcolm says that he is avaricious and horribly greedy, and he claims that he will want to steal land and jewels and houses from his nobles if he is king. Finally, Malcolm claims that, if he could, he would "Pour the sweet milk of concord into hell" and "confound / All unity of earth" (4.3.114, 115–116).

Throughout Malcolm's declarations about his horrific character, Macduff attempts to minimize the flaws Malcolm claims to have and proclaims that Malcolm is still better than Macbeth. Eventually, however, Macduff finally begins to despair and tells Malcolm that he is not only unfit to govern Scotland but unfit "to live" (4.3.121). He expresses his absolute shock that Malcolm could be so awful considering how wonderful, even "sainted," his parents were. Macduff cries out that his "hope [for Scotland] ends here!" (4.3.132).

When Malcolm hears this, he realizes that Macduff is honest and is not working for Macbeth. Malcolm explains that Macbeth has tried to lure him home by sending people to him with arguments similar to the one Macduff made early on. It is when Macduff declares that Malcolm is not fit to govern Scotland and he despairs for the country that he inadvertently proves to Malcolm that he is trustworthy.

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In Act 1V of the play Macbeth by William Shakespeare, the author shows how Malcolm tries to prove that he is trustworthy by speaking truthfully about his own strengths and weaknesses. In particular he says

"Nay, had I power, I should pour the sweet milk of concord into hell..."

Macduff says that this would be a terrible thing for Scotland, and Malcolm casts doubt upon his own ability to govern. Macduff appears to be impressed by his honesty, but disappointed all the same, for his country's future, his miserable nation. Malcolm describes MacBeth as devilish - it appears that Malcolm has only been testing Macduff. Now he believes he can trust him, but fears for his country's safety.

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In Shakespeare's Macbeth, in, I believe, the longest scene of the play (Act 4.3), Malcolm creates an elaborate test to prove or disprove Macduff's loyalty.  In an echo of the fair is foul and foul is fair theme in the play, Malcolm suspects Macduff may be just acting like a friend, when he is really an enemy seeking a chance to betray Malcolm to Macbeth. 

The scene is also dramatically ironic, since the audience knows Macduff's family has just been killed on orders by Macbeth, but Malcolm and Macduff don't know this yet.  

Malcolm plays a role or puts on an act--another theme in the play--and pretends to be three things:  lustful, greedy, and an all-around terrible person.  Malcolm is waiting to see if Macduff will continue to support him and go along with him, even when Malcolm convinces him that he'll be a terrible king.  If Macduff just blindly keeps saying "Yes, yes, it's okay, we can make this work (I'm paraphrasing)," then Malcolm will assume that Macduff doesn't really care about Scotaland and that he is really an agent for Macbeth.

Macduff goes along with the lust and the greed, saying Scotland has plenty of wenches and plenty of money, but when he hears Malcolm's final test, and Malcolm asks Macduff if he still thinks Malcolm is fit to rule, Macduff replies:

...Fit to govern?

No, not [fit] to live!  (Act 4.3.103-104)

And that's enough for Malcolm.  He knows Macduff is a loyal Scot and he reveals the truth to Macduff.  They form the alliance that will eventually cause Macbeth's destruction.

In another incidence of irony, these two get the news near the end of the scene that Macbeth has had Macduff's family murdered, ending all possible suspicion that Macduff is an agent of Macbeth's. 

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Macduff proves that he is trustworthy by standing up to Malcolm instead of just agreeing with Malcolm or telling him that he is great.  This shows Malcolm that Macduff is interested in what's good for Scotland, not in getting ahead himself.

Malcolm tells Macduff that he (Malcolm) will be a terrible king.  He says that he is selfish and greedy and things like that.  He says it over and over until finally Macduff believes him and says that this is a terrible thing for Scotland.

Once Macduff has done that, Malcolm believes he is a good man.

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