In act 3, scene 5 of Romeo and Juliet, why does Lord Capulet want Juliet to get married quickly? What is his mood?

In act 3, scene 5 of Romeo and Juliet, Lord Capulet wants Juliet to get married quickly because he believes her excessive grief, which he attributes to her mourning Tybalt, threatens her health. His mood is volatile, and he blows up in rage when Juliet tries to refuse Paris.

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In act 3, scene 5, Juliet is mourning over her parting with Romeo, who has been banished from Verona. Seeing his daughter grieving, Capulet determines that a marriage to Paris will raise her spirits and views this as a solution to their current woes. Thus, he arrives, intent on alerting her on the arrangement, expecting her to be delighted with the news.

When Juliet refuses to marry Paris, however, her father is driven into a rage. In Capulet's mind, his daughter is being unappreciative of the marriage he has organized for her, and he castigates her, even going so far as to threaten to disown her, stating that if she does not agree to marry Paris as instructed, he will cast her out into the street.

That being said, one of the difficulties of analyzing Shakespeare is the multiplicity of potential interpretations, and the same can be said of Capulet's characterization here. Here, you might reasonably ask: is Capulet's rage driven primarily by disappointment in Juliet's unenthusiastic reaction, upsetting his own hopes of a simple solution to her emotional turmoil? Is it about quashing a challenge to his paternal authority? Is it a combination of both these factors? Might there be some additional explanation altogether? I don't think this is an easy question to answer, but rather this scene (as it stands) can support a variety of potential interpretations.

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Lord Capulet wants to Juliet to get married quickly because he believes this will help cure her grief. He has watched her crying and crying inconsolably and thinks this is due to her cousin Tybalt's death. He has no idea she is pining for Romeo.
Lord Capulet also fears that if she does not calm down soon, the grief, which he likens to a violent storm at sea, will damage or destroy her body, as a violent storm does a ship. He says,
Without a sudden calm [grief] will overset
Thy tempest-tossèd body.
Lord Capulet is convinced that a quick marriage will settle her down and take her mind off her sorrows.
Lord Capulet is emotionally on edge. He has worked hard to pull off this marriage and expects Juliet to be thrilled. He loses his temper when she refuses the wedding to Paris. His wife encourages him to calm down, saying he is too angry:

You are too hot.

Lord Capulet agrees that he is "mad," saying he has worked tirelessly to secure a good marriage for his only daughter. He feels he has delivered everything she could possibly want in Paris, who is good-looking, wealthy, well connected, and eager to marry her. He blows up because, from his point of view, Juliet is acting like a spoiled child.

The scene is filled with dramatic irony. We as an audience know that Juliet is not spoiled, but desperate to avoid a marriage with Paris when she is already married to Romeo.

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While I totally agree with the above answer, I would add two more reasons why Lord and Lady Capulet want Juliet to marry Paris.

First, he is physically very attractive. The Nurse says he is "a man of wax" and Lady Capulet says, "Verona's summer hath not such a flower." Lady Capulet goes on to further describe Paris's attractiveness in Act I, Scene 3:

Read o’er the volume of young Paris’ face,
And find delight writ there with beauty’s pen.
Examine every married lineament
And see how one another lends content,
And what obscured in this fair volume lies
Find written in the margent of his eyes.
For Lady Capulet and especially for the Nurse, physical charms are very important in choosing a mate. The Nurse is equally impressed by Romeo and says in Act II, Scene 5:
Though his face be better than any man’s, yet his leg
excels all men’s, and for a hand and a foot and a
body, though they be not to be talked on, yet they
are past compare.
Secondly, the match between Count Paris and Juliet can be seen as socially and politically expedient. The fact he is a Count obviously means he is quite wealthy. Juliet's family too is very rich, as indicated by the Nurse's words to Romeo in Act I, Scene 5:
I tell you, he that can lay hold of her
Shall have the chinks.
The marriage would also be beneficial to Lord Capulet politically since Count Paris is a relative of the Prince who rules Verona. In reality, a marriage between Juliet and Paris makes perfect sense. They are of the same class and close in age, although Paris's age is never specified. Romeo would also be a good match socially and financially if it were not for the bitter feud (definitely part of Friar Laurence's thought process in marrying the doomed youngsters).
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Lord Capulet thinks that Juliet is grieving too hard for the death of her cousin, and has decided that a hasty marriage to Paris is the cure for it. This is ironic, because when Paris first approached Capulet about marrying Juliet, Capulet is opposed to Juliet getting married too quickly, and insist on them waiting a couple of years. His mood is also depressed and emotional. His emotions are on edge, and one could come to the conclusion that he is seeking relief from his own grief as well as Juliet's. Based on the very violent nature of his response to her refusal to marry Paris, it is clear that Capulet it being controlled by his emotions.

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