In act 2, scene 2, what's Hamlet's state of mind revealed by his soliloquy? What do Hamlet's remarks to Polonius tell about Hamlet's thoughts?

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Towards the end of act two, scene two, Hamlet reveals that he is highly critical of his inability to act upon his emotions and the Ghost's instructions to murder King Claudius. Hamlet begins his soliloquy by referring to himself as a "rogue and peasant" and compares his reaction...

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Towards the end of act two, scene two, Hamlet reveals that he is highly critical of his inability to act upon his emotions and the Ghost's instructions to murder King Claudius. Hamlet begins his soliloquy by referring to himself as a "rogue and peasant" and compares his reaction to his father's death to the passionate actor, who is able to articulate and show emotion over fictional situations. Hamlet continues to express his low self-esteem and melancholic disposition by referring to himself as "a dull and muddy-mettled rascal" who is too cowardly to take action. Hamlet goes on to say, "I am pigeon-livered and lack gall / To make oppression bitter...," which emphasizes his lack of confidence and drive to avenge his father's death (2.2.565-566).

Hamlet proceeds to list all of Claudius's negative qualities and once again ridicules his own hesitancy and inaction. Hamlet specifically criticizes the fact that he cannot act upon his emotions and resorts to verbally complaining about his uncle and terrible situation. After harshly abusing himself, Hamlet reveals his plan to confirm the Ghost's message and discern whether or not Claudius is responsible for killing his father. Hamlet then tells the audience that he will have the players reenact his father's assassination and watch Claudius's reaction. Hamlet’s soliloquy portrays him as a depressed individual, who is extremely insecure and lacks self-esteem.

In regards to Hamlet's interaction with Polonius, he feigns madness but simultaneously insults the long-winded, foolish counselor to his face without him noticing. Hamlet refers to Polonius as a fishmonger and briefly comments on Ophelia, which confirms Polonius's belief that Hamlet is lovesick. Hamlet is aware that Polonius will be reporting his behavior and their discussion to Claudius, which is why he purposefully confuses Polonius. Ironically, Hamlet manipulates Polonius while Polonius is attempting to manipulate him. Hamlet's ability to feign madness and toy with Polonius reveals that he is quite sane at this particular moment in the play. As the play develops, Hamlet's mental health and sanity will come into question, and the audience will wonder if he has truly lost his mind.

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Near the end of this soliloquy, Hamlet alludes to his state of mind when he calls himself "melancholy." As he has been since the play opened, and he arrived home to find his world altered, Hamlet is deeply depressed.

The soliloquy also shows he is filled with self-loathing, calling himself an "ass" because of his inability to move ahead and avenge his father by killing Claudius, a person he characterizes as a:

Remorseless, treacherous, lecherous, kindless villain!

Hamlet has a deep love for his father and a loathing for Claudius that impels him to want to avenge his father's death. He also knows it is the socially acceptable act under the circumstances: after all, Claudius has murdered his father. But the soliloquy also shows how disinclined Hamlet is by nature to want to participate in the bloodbath of a revenge culture. Inside his humane soul, he recoils from revenge. That's why Hamlet's observation of the actor is so significant: Hamlet understands that in becoming the son avenging his father's death, he is playing a role. He berates himself for not being able to play the role half as well as the actor plays the role of mourning over Hecuba. After all, Hamlet reasons, he is genuinely upset over his father's death—and yet is paralyzed.

Hamlet also realizes, as he states in the soliloquy, that he understands the devil may be taking advantage of his "weakness," his grief over his father's death, to trap him into killing a possibly innocent man. As Hamlet states,

The spirit that I have seen
May be the devil: and the devil hath power
To assume a pleasing shape; yea, and perhaps
Out of my weakness and my melancholy,
As he is very potent with such spirits,
Abuses me to damn me

Hamlet therefore decides to run the rational test of the mousetrap play to watch Claudius' reaction to a reenactment of the murder the ghost described.

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In his third soliloquy (act 2, scene 2), Hamlet recriminates himself for his lack of courage, which prevents him from avenging his father's murder.

After watching an actor make a bold, grief-stricken speech over an imaginary loss, Hamlet derides himself as "a rogue and a peasant slave." (2.2.506) He wonders if he is nothing more than a coward because he should have already "...fatted all the region kites/With this slave’s offal." (2.2.540-541) Hamlet concludes that he must be cowardly; otherwise, he would have slain Claudius, the "bloody, bawdy, villain" (2.2.537) who has killed King Hamlet.

While scolding himself for his inaction, Hamlet finally has an idea upon which he can act. He recalls that guilty people have watched plays so cleverly presented that they are "struck to the soul" (2.2.554) by the drama, and their consciences are so profoundly stirred that they confess their crimes. This idea inspires Hamlet to have the actors "play something like the murder of my father" (2.2.558) so he can watch Claudius's reaction. Resolved that "the play's the thing" (2.2.566) and it will reveal Claudius's conscience, Hamlet moves on his plan. Once he has this proof, Hamlet can justify killing Claudius.

Earlier in this scene, Hamlet speaks with Polonius and pretends to mistake him for "a fishmonger." He acts as though he is mad, making absurd remarks. However, some of these remarks hide truths, and Polonius notices that there is a method to Hamlet's madness. Hamlet's pretense of madness rouses suspicions.

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The soliloquy to which you refer is the "...rogue and peasant slave.." speech.  Here, Hamlet is upset with himself because he's done nothing yet to avenge his father's death as he promised the ghost he'd do.  At the beginning of the speech, he compares himself to the actor who, delivering the lines he just gave, was so emotional, he had tears in his eyes.  Hamlet says he should be that emotional and determined to avenge his father's death. He says that he hasn't even done any planning and that if anyone were to call him a wimp or to slap him, he'd deserve it for his inaction.  Then he rants about his uncle, calling him a "bloody, bawdy villain!" among other names.  He becomes determined to take some kind of action and so, at the end of this speech, says he's heard that someone, seeing his bad deeds enacted, might react, therefore he'll have the players enact a scene depicting his father's death and see if Claudius reacts.  That way, Hamlet will know that the ghost was indeed the spirit of his dead father and not a demon trying to lure him into hell by getting him to commit murder.  Hamlet's earlier remarks to Polonius tell us that Hamlet has disdain for Polonius whom he considers a meddlesome person.  Hamlet makes caustic remarks to Polonius reflecting Hamlet's scorn for Polonius.

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