The importance of Cereals in gastroenterology.
To assess the nutritional value of various types of flour, it is useful to recall ground grain composition, in their composition existing predominantly carbohydrates (starch in grain, cellulose in the external shell, small amounts of glucose, dextrin, gum), soluble nitrogenous substances (vegetable proteins) and insoluble (gluten-which is ranging from different types of cereal), body fat, water, minerals.
Cereals and foods derived from grains are low-water (10-16%) food, being rich in carbohydrates represented at a rate of 60-80%, with 1.6% starch and other carbohydrates equivalent, covering 70-80% of the body needs in these nutrients and 30-50% of energy needs. Although necessary proteins are in IInd or IIIrd class,they are found in significant quantities (7-16%) and provides about 50% of the daily needs. Group B vitamins are well represented in the grains , especially vitamins B1 and B6.
They are containing a number of important mineral elements, as phosphorus (200-400mg%), potassium (100-350mg%
magnesium (50-160mg%) and some trace elements (copper, manganese, zinc, etc.). Underrepresented are fat (1-89%, located mainly in the embryo. In cereal crops often grow other plants such as weeds, wild rape, etc., whose seeds can be found among cereal grains and if not removed before grinding, can lead to poisoning. Thus, weeds contain a saponin, which has a potent hemolysis and a toxic alkaloid. Disease risk is low but deoare in most of these substances are removed with the bran, and in particular the storage and thermal processing, greatly reduced toxicity.
But the disease risk is low because most of these substances are removed with the bran, and in particular by the storage and thermal processing, toxicity is greatly reduced. Wild rapeseed contains high-temperature resistent toxic substances, (which are not active during bread baking), and that may give disturbances, particularly of the nervous system, causing the same time and changes of organoleptic properties.