Illuminate and extract the uses of rhyme scheme and figures of speech in Sonnet 116.

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The rhyme scheme is typical of the English, or Shakespearean, sonnet: abab cdcd efef gg. This means that the last words in lines 1 and 3 rhyme (this is called end rhyme), the last words in lines 2 and 4 rhyme, the last words in lines 5 and 7 rhyme, the last words in lines 6 and 8 rhyme, the last words in lines 9 and 11 rhyme, the last words in lines 10 and 12 rhyme, and then the last words in lines 13 and 14 rhyme (this pair is called a rhyming couplet).

In line 1, the word "minds" is substituted for entire people (it isn't our "minds" that get married, but ourselves); this kind of part-for-whole substitution is called synecdoche. Love is compared, via metaphor, to "an ever-fixed mark" that is not shaken even by storms. Another metaphor compares love to a "star" that guides travelers home. Love is personified, as is Time, made capable of being a fool (though it isn't one) or having a fool, respectively. Time is also personified as a reaper, who takes our years and our "rosy lips and cheeks" away. These qualities stand in for our youth, and this kind of detail being substituted for a thing with which it's associated is called metonymy.

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Shakespeare's Sonnet 116 uses the following traditional rhyme scheme:

a b a b   c d c d   e f e f   gg

with the quatrains (four-line stanzas) each using self-contained rhymes (the rhymes are not shared) and the closing couplet (pair of rhymed lines) set apart.  The self-contained rhymes reflect and contribute to the content, in the sense that each quatrain uses its own line of thought just as it contains its own rhymes.  Rhyme, as always, creates unity, as well. 

Metaphor is the dominant figure of speech in the poem.  We read:  love doesn't bend with the remover, love is a mark (an unspecified nautical device), love is a star, love is not time's fool (court jester), the grim reaper's sickle swipes like the arc of a compass.  The metaphors create a series of images used to describe love. 

The poem closes with a paradox--if what the speaker says is not true, then he has never written, and no man has ever loved. 

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