Identify the figure of speech and explain the meaning in each of the following quotations from “Ode to the West Wind” by Percy Bysshe Shelley. I fall upon the thorns of life! I bleed! Drive my dead thoughts over the universe, Like withered leaves, to quicken a new birth! Thou who didst waken from his summer dreamsThe blue Mediterranean, where he lay.

These three figures of speech from "Ode to the West Wind" are examples of metaphor, simile, and personification. The latter two quotations are also examples of apostrophe, in which the poet addresses the wind directly.

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In Percy Bysshe Shelley's "Ode to the West Wind," the following line appears in the fourth stanza:

I fall upon the thorns of life! I bleed!

This is a metaphor. The pains and trials of life are compared to thorns and the suffering they cause the poet, to bleeding.

In the fifth and final stanza, the poet speaks to the wind:

Drive my dead thoughts over the universe
Like wither'd leaves to quicken a new birth!
This is both an apostrophe and a simile. An apostrophe is a direct address, often to an inanimate object or force, and is a common element in Romantic poetry. In this case, the poet addresses the wind and asks it to carry his thoughts through the universe. Because these thoughts are dead, he compares them with dead leaves, which are in fact blown about by the wind. There is a paradox in asking the wind to spread his thoughts "to quicken a new birth" when he admits that the thoughts are themselves dead.
The following lines appear in the third stanza:
Thou who didst waken from his summer dreams
The blue Mediterranean, where he lay.
This is also an example of apostrophe, directly addressing the wind. In addition to this, it is an instance of personification. The Mediterranean is presented as a man, since Shelley describes the sea, using the masculine pronoun, as lying down and being wakened from sleep. This provides the reader with a vivid image of what happens when the wind blows over the water, stirring it up to animation. All three figures of speech are striking images, giving the poem a strongly visual quality.
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