The quotes that are in the book do not describe the location so much as the kind of lives that the characters who live at these locations follow and lead. Moscow is shown to be the centre of "good" society, and as such, Gurov finds himself on his return there leading a life of parties, dinners and social interactions:
He became gradually immersed in Moscow life, reading with avidity three newspapers a day, while declaring he never read Moscow newspapers on principle. Once more he was caught up in a whirl of restaurants, clubs, banquets, and celebrations, once more glowed with teh flattering consciousness that well-known laywers and actors came to his house, that he played cards in the Medical Club opposite a professor.
His life is defined by culture and acquaintances. By contrast, Anna's home town is perhaps best described by the hotel room in her town that Gurov stays in. We are told it was the best suite in the hotel, and yet it is clear that this is nothing compared to the lavish sophistication he is used to in Moscow:
He arrived at S. in the morning and engaged the best suite in the hotel, which had a carpet of grey military frieze, and a dusty ink-pot on the table, surmounted by a headless rider, holding his hat in his raised hand.
Anna's home is clearly nothing compared to the glamour of Moscow, and reflects her own simple, unrefined nature.