• Identify examples of irony in each act in Julius Caesar and tell the function of each.

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There are three types of irony in literature: dramatic irony, situational irony, and verbal irony.  Dramatic irony occurs when the audience is aware of something that the character is not.  Situational irony occurs when an outcome is different from what is expected.  Verbal irony occurs when a character or speaker says something that contradicts his or her intended meaning.  In Julius Caesar, Shakespeare uses all three types of irony to present underlying meanings and narrative tensions to further develop the narrative arc. 

In Act 1 Scene II, dramatic irony occurs when the Soothsayer bids to Caesar to “Beware the ides of March” (I. ii. 20).  This is an example of dramatic irony for two reasons.  First, the audience has already been made aware of the conflict surrounding Caesar’s legitimacy as a ruler through the dialogue between Flavius and Murellus in Act I, Scene I.  Also, in a historical context, the audience knows that Caesar is killed on the 15th of March.  The...

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