1. Prior knowlege- What a student knows can either help or inhibit learning. If a students' prior learning is stellar and accurate, this can create a strong foundation to build on. But prior erroneous information can be detrimental as you will have to convince the student that what they "know" is incorrect and replace those fallacies new, correct information.
2. Motivation- Some students are ready to go and others need to be shown the way. However, when an instructor is able to prove the value the learning, there is greater incentive to engage and succeed.