A good example of a scientific concept that has led to an important technological development in the last few decades is Quantum Mechanics. The related technological development is, of course, the entire electronics branch that has led in the last 10 years or so to computers, mobile phones, HD TV, and the way we communicate now - including this answer. In particular the scientific principles that apply to electronics are the Uncertainty Heisenberg principle for quantum particles and the principle of Stationary Energy Levels of electrons in atoms (postulated by Bohr in its model of atom). Starting from these Quantum Mechanics principles in the last 50 years all the Solid State Physics has been developed, that explains the electric conduction phenomena in semiconductors (used by all electronics industry).
In the last few years the study of surface phenomena (in Solid State physics) (phenomena of electron conduction confined by a potential in a very small space - see electron in quantum box) have been used to develop special MOSFET and MODFET transistors that form now the day by day microprocessors from our computers.