A short story that lends itself to analysis from both perspectives would most likely be one that is set in an earlier time period, such as pre-independence– or early-independence–era Africa or South Asia. Many prominent novelists also wrote short fiction, so you might consider a story by an author with whose work you are already familiar. One option would be Chinua Achebe’s “Dead Men’s Path,” which tells of an African headmaster who tries to modernize a village school. Achebe explores the contradictions of traditional beliefs and imposed modern ways.
Postcolonial perspectives also apply to literature produced by diaspora peoples. “Interpreter of Maladies” is a story by an Indian American author, Jhumpa Lahiri, and concerns a cross-cultural and cross-generational encounter in India during a visit to a temple. While the subject is roughly contemporary, the cultural heritage component lends itself to historicist interpretation as well.
A classic story set during anti-colonial conflicts in North Africa is Albert Camus’s “The Guest.” A deceptively simple situation, in which an official must make a crucial decision, encapsulates many dilemmas of the colonial situation.