Of course, nothing in life is completely inevitable, but this bill had very little chance of passage given the situation you describe.
Bills are said to be able to pass Congress if they are supported by the "inside game" or the "outside game" or both. The inside game is the game of lobbyists and politicians pressuring one another to help the bill pass. The outside game is when constituents push for a bill, sometimes egged on by lobbyists or politicians such as the president.
This bill was not winning in either game. In fact, everything was against it in both games. There was pressure from the political leaders to defeat it and from the public.
The only way this could have passed was if the supporters had somehow managed to generate their own strong inside and outside games to counter those that were working against the bill.