A hypothetical Congressional bill did not pass.  Given the scenario below, was it inevitable that this would happen? The following factors figured in its defeat: 1. Constituents flooded the offices of several members of congress with phone calls and emails against the bill. 2. The majority party opposed the bill. 3. The president urged key members of congress to vote against the bill. 4. Lobbyists campaigned for defeat of the bill. Did these factors make it inevitable?

Expert Answers

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Of course, nothing in life is completely inevitable, but this bill had very little chance of passage given the situation you describe.

Bills are said to be able to pass Congress if they are supported by the "inside game" or the "outside game" or both.  The inside game is the game of lobbyists and politicians pressuring one another to help the bill pass.  The outside game is when constituents push for a bill, sometimes egged on by lobbyists or politicians such as the president.

This bill was not winning in either game.  In fact, everything was against it in both games.  There was pressure from the political leaders to defeat it and from the public.

The only way this could have passed was if the supporters had somehow managed to generate their own strong inside and outside games to counter those that were working against the bill.


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