According to Edward P. Bailey and Philip A. Powell's The Practical Writer, the conclusion should do two things:
- It reminds the reader of the main point of your essay.
- It give the reader a sense of finality.
The conclusion of an essay is no more than a rewording of the thesis as a means of "wrapping up" the essay and reminding the reader of the purpose for which the essay has been written. Therefore, it will reiterate the general statement and the three (usually) opinions/arguments that make up this general statement. With the topic of transportation in India, you have probably discussed the development of this transportation and the history that is attached to this transportation which is tied to India's colonization and advancement into the nineteenth century. In a sense, the conclusion demonstrates to the reader that you have, indeed, proved his/her statement and main points, or arguments about India's transportation.
In addition, a conclusion should also have a "clincher." This gives the conclusion a sense of finality. Again, the clincher takes the reader back to the introductory paragraph in which you have provided a "hook" or "motivator" (Bailey & Powell), an observation or quotation relative to the topic. And, as mentioned in the previous post, the clincher takes the reader "to a broader vision," or to an extension of thought from the points in the essay. For instance, the clincher could make a statement that looks to India's future with its advancements in transportation.
Source: Bailey, Edward P. and Powell, Philip A. The Practical Writer. Boston: Thomson-Heilne, 2003. Print.