Friedrich Nietzsche's stamp on philosophy remains strong, especially in existentialism; his ideas have informed and inspired significant figures across historical and moral boundaries.
Nietzsche's philosophy revolves around a concept of life-affirmation, or the objective examination of all ideals that are harmful to the self regardless of public opinion. To this end, he pursued criticism on accepted ideas of his era, notable attacking the Church and Christianity for delivering an outmoded message of redemption where he would prefer to see ideas based in perspectivism, a philosophy he invented where one's personal perspective dictates their perception of morality.
Nietzsche also developed ideas of nihilism, or the futility of all pursuits for a lack of purpose; he rejected organized religion with the infamous statement "God is Dead" and wrote extensively on how organized religion often pursues personal goals rather then the spiritual goals they claim.
Finally, Nietzsche created the concept of the Übermensch, the ultimate man who may rise from humanity if it is willing to strive for it; if there are no natural goals to strive for, Nietzsche decided that mankind could create a goal for itself and rise above its low intellect and nature.