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In his book Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us, Daniel H. Pink argues that people are motivated by intrinsic reward as much as by external motives, like financial success and biological drives like those for sex and food. Pink is arguing against the so-called rational actor model which still dominates economic thought and management theory. This idea claims that people are driven primarily by motives and punishments, and would do no work at all if not so motivated. However, Pink claims that many, if not all people devote a significant amount of time in their lives working toward goals that promise no financial reward. Many people, for instance, read for self-edification, or learn to play an instrument knowing it will never bring them wealth. The practical problem is that businesses do not recognize that this drive for intrinsic reward, which he calls "Motivation 3.0," is essential for many jobs in the new workplace, particularly those that demand creativity and flexibility in thought.
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