How would you describe Macbeth's state of mind as he makes his way to King Duncan's chambers? 

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This moment of resolve happens at the end of act 2, scene 1. As Macbeth focuses his efforts on ridding himself of Duncan, he becomes agitated, even seeing things that aren't there:

Is this a dagger which I see before me,
The handle toward my hand? (2.1.41–42)

As he tries to grab it, his hand passes right through. Some literary critics point to this as when Macbeth begins to lose his sanity and spiral out of control in his actions. Others argue that he is very much in control, continuing to make decisions with a declining moral compass. Either way, he is clearly not calm as he approaches his intended victim, speaking to the floating apparition of a dagger as he proceeds.

Macbeth finally seems to snap back into reality with a moment of clarity:

There’s no such thing.
It is the bloody business which informs
Thus to mine eyes. (2.1.55–57)

As the scene concludes, he finds his strength and clarity of purpose, asking that his steps be light enough to not be heard so that he can complete the murder he has set out to do. He wishes to make haste with his actions so that he doesn't lose the passion and courage that is necessary to kill Duncan.

His final speech in this scene begins with hesitation and an overwhelming sense of guilt that seems to manifest itself in the vision of a bloody dagger. However, Macbeth's speech shifts near the end to that of a cold and calculated killer who is intent on murdering this good and faithful king.

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In act 1, scene 2, Macbeth begins to hallucinate and imagines that he sees the image of a bloody dagger pointing toward King Duncan's chamber. The hallucination that Macbeth experiences represents his ambition and desire to attain the throne. Macbeth is depicted as an anxious man who is determined to take what he desires. The bloody dagger indicates that Macbeth will follow through with his actions and commit regicide. During Macbeth's soliloquy, he commands the ground to not make a sound as he sneaks toward Duncan's chamber and mentions that the more time he spends speaking, the more his courage diminishes. This comment indicates that Macbeth has is attempting to work himself into a focused state of mind that will allow him to murder the king regardless of the consequences attached to the crime. Similar to how Lady Macbeth called upon evil spirits to make her callous and malevolent, Macbeth is trying to get into a murderous state of mind in which nothing will stop him from killing King Duncan. Before he even enters the king's chamber, Macbeth mentions that the murder is as good as done by saying, "I go, and it is done. The bell invites me" (Shakespeare, 2.1.64). Immediately after assassinating the king, however, Macbeth becomes overwhelmed with guilt and fear.

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In Act 2, Scene 1, before Macbeth enters Duncan's chamber, he is already full of anxiety about killing Duncan. In this famous scene, he hallucinates and believes he sees a dagger. He is trying to put himself into a state of mind where he is capable of committing murder. Macbeth's soliloquy at the end of this scene consists of him talking himself into carrying out the murder. He experiences a lot of fear, anxiety, and potential guilt. 

In Act 2, Scene 2, Macbeth tells his wife he has committed the murder. He also explains his state of mind as he went into Duncan's chamber. Macbeth claims that he heard Duncan's guards saying prayers. Macbeth reveals how guilty he felt and he adds that he couldn't say "Amen" upon overhearing their prayers. Lady Macbeth says he is overthinking things. He adds that he heard one of them say "Sleep no more! / Macbeth doth murder sleep-" / the innocent sleep." Macbeth was plagued by guilt and anxiety when he entered the chamber and those feelings continue and grow steadily worse after the murders have been committed. 

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