How would you account for Captain Beatty's ability to qoute extensively from literature?

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Captain Beatty is a complex individual who vehemently supports the government censorship laws but also displays his remarkable literary knowledge by quoting literature and alluding to famous works multiple times in the novel. During his conversation with Montag in Part One, Captain Beatty admits that he, too, turned to literature for answers before discovering that books can present contradicting ideas and information. Beatty tells Montag that the knowledge he pursued made him feel "bestial and lonely," which influenced him to join the fireman institution.

In addition to Captain Beatty's prior literary research before becoming a staunch supporter of the government's censorship laws, he may have access to illegal books or be required to read literature in order to better understand the "enemy." The fact that Beatty can quote literature verbatim suggests that he has been specially trained and continues to read extensively. Another possibility is that Beatty has also been exposed to a similar method of remembering complete works of literature like the traveling intellectuals. Beatty could have developed his own method during his independent study, or he could have been trained by government agents in this area.

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In my opinion, it is very clear that Captain Beatty has read a lot of literature and must really care about it.  I think it would be very hard to learn the books well enough to quote from them like he does unless you really like the books.

What I assume is that some few people are allowed to (or maybe required to) read the books so that they have some idea as to what they are fighting against.  They need to know the enemy so they can fight it more effectively.

So I think Beatty started doing that but then kind of went over to the other side -- he started caring about the books.

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