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Rainbows have been known for all of history, but the first scientist to describe them analytically was probably the Iraqi physicist Ibn al-Haytham. The first scientists to correctly identify the cause of phenomenon, sunlight refracted through small raindrops in the air, were Shen Kuo and Sun Sikong, in China during the Song Dynasty.
Isaac Newton gave us our modern understanding of the spectrum of light that is visible when white light passes through a prism.
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